Thursday, February 28, 2019

What Causes Social Intolerance?

Across multiple disciplines in the affectionate sciences, the correction of complaisant inequality represents a dramatic bea of explore. neighborly allowance account has commonly factored as a point of political study. This muckle be seen as a ending of an increasingly pluralistic indian lodge, which encompasses vast elements of race, godliness, ethnicity, sexual practice and familiar diversity. Due to this great emphasis has been cast upon the concept sufferance. To a stratum this squeeze out be perceived as a result of globalization, which has seen a vast influx of people from low income to high-income countries. cordial superstition send word in like manner be viewed indoors a historical context, for causa a prominent ara of study is the Nazi Germany treatment of the Jewish race, as well as modern day dealings. Throughout my study, I am going to break down with the helper of political research, what the master(prenominal) braces of social creduli ty argon, as the issue of social tolerance continues to be prominent within todays societies across the globe. at that place atomic mo 18 varying short letters regarding what is the root cause of much(prenominal) intolerance, howal counsellings, we must(prenominal) recognize that the effectuate of social intolerance is one which is hard to quantify.This is because how one responds to a steady-going deal question concerning attitudes toward a group leave behind non accurately fall how the respondent will react when encountering an individual from that group. Therefore it is questionable to what degree we open fire rely on surveys, as a lot people responses do not always think oer true attitudes, as people back tooth be dishonest, or answer in ways they moot to be to a greater extent appealing than their true feelings. complaisant tolerance is a middling broad concept. As argued by Professor Popper, Toleration is a necessity consequence of our being human we be a ll products of frailty rickety and prone to error.So let us mutually pardon individually early(a)(a)s follies. Thus meaning that we are all worst to such(prenominal) a disposition. Susan Mendes defines tolerance as an appeal to the propriety of allowing for each one individual to pursue his own life in whichever way he thinks best for him. This justification often refers to the requirement that we show admiration for persons as autonomous agents. Such descriptions of tolerance infer that open-mindedness is a crucial specialise for peace and stability and a balanced co- surviveence. It places emphasis upon the individuals role within society and their responsibility to act in accordance.There is also a moral element in relation to such attitudes a principled recognition that the unalikes sacrifice rights even if the exercise those rights in unattractive ways. Within my study, I will be drawing upon research data from previous samples, and will be using data from the Eu ropean Social Survey, as the areas I have been predominantly looking at are within Europe and on a personal level, this instruction is relative to where I live. I recollect that ultimately one of the principal(prenominal) elements of social intolerance are establish amidst certain(prenominal) elements of the demographic.I believe characteristics such as age, religion, education and region shape our disadvantages. Our society is ever evolving and broadening, and diversity has become a way of life to many. However, I believe that the older more than than sheltered and less educated population are more likely to be less tolerant and likely to musical accompaniment false and negative stereotypes, this is because they are less likely to engage with individuals from state groups, thusly they are more likely to support negative stereotypes, and de requisition helps eliminate such prejudice. Research suggests that those with education, who live in urban areas, or are religious libe rals tend to hold more compulsive attitudes I believe that these views will be reflected in on the European Social Survey regarding Qualifying for Immigration. I am going to focal point on the variables demonstrating the charms of scotchal considerations as well as nationality, as these reflect further arguments demonstrated within my essay. The immigrant is pull to the way of life in the verdant they are moving to. The results support the idea that the immigrant being committed to the way of life is extremely important across Europe.It also supports the notion that although economic factors are important, in relation to the immigrant assimilating to the nation states way of life, and both tie in with the arguments regarding social identity. (See Appendix 1 & 2) Social identity system states that an integral element of an individuals sense of who they are is based upon groups that they belong to or identify with. This concept of identity whoremonger be related to various l evels, such as nationality, ethnicity, religion, color or other characteristics. The result of this is that individuals are able to place themselves within groups that embody such characteristics.Individuals can maintain membership of more than one group. Social identity operator theory believes that humans define themselves, as well as others, largely in terms of the social groups to which they belong. Social intolerance can be seen to develop from relations between different groups, One of the major motivational assumptions of social identity theory is that all people will strive to achieve a positive social identity. As a result of the desire for positive affiliation, to evaluate their own group positively, they are often though not always striked to evaluate other groups negatively.This underpins the tendency for social tensions to develop, as it is often installed by the conviction that certain groups are superior. Pressures indeed often arise, as groups believe that the positive elements within ones own group needs to be protected from the negative influences attributed to others. This can result in social prejudice and discrimination where subordinate groups have predominantly negative stereotypic attributions when evaluated by dominant group members. Social dominance theory begins with the observation that all human societies are inherently group-based hierarchies and are inherently oppressive.This and so means that social intolerance is derived from the graded structure of society, which is composed of domineering group-based structure. meetinging reflects the differing elements within society, such as nation states, races, class, ethnicity, religion, etc. It is believed that only certain individuals are able to be obtain positions of violence, and certain characteristics are deemed necessary, such as intelligence. Within this theory it is believed that men are more suited to domineering positions of group power than women.In site for th is there are Hierarchy enhancing environments are social contexts that encourage or reinforce the acceptance and support for social inequality. Legitimising myths are a way in which hierarchal order can be maintained they are seen as attitudes, values, beliefs, or ideologies that provide moral and keen support to and justification for the group. To phrase it differently, legitimising myths are seen as a way in which discrimination and intolerance can be warrant in order to promote structure.This theory is clearly limited in its views, as it does little to explain outer group relationships which may go against the grain of hierarchy. It can be seen that to a certain degree we do construct such social orders within society, but this theory is faraway too totalitarian and does not fit well within society as it does not explain a magnitude of group relationships. Group conflict theory, as is demonstrated in Sherif and Horlands Robbers Case experiment (1954) helps reflect the tension s that can arise through group disputation.The Robbers Cave experiment, between two groups of youthful middle class boys conclude that intergroup competition rather quickly leads to ethnocentrism and group conflict, but increases levels of inter-group morale, cohesiveness, and cooperation as well. This experiment supports the belief that groups compete and conflict, as these are largely functions of realistic competition between groups over scarce resources. Its therefore supports the rational quality theory that humans are predisposed to act selfishly and intolerance is often a product of this.For instance if a group hinders another(prenominal)s best interests either economically, politically or socially, this can cause an out lash of intolerance. Threat to national identity can be seen as a motivating factor in anti immigrant sentiment. It can often be hard for new immigrants to earn into another countrys finishing, as often issues especially those such as religion and race can make assimilation difficult. The Sniderman study into Dutch culture draws to attention and quantifies these perceived nemesiss to society and identity regarding new immigrants.Sniderman argues that the perceived menace to culture overrides economic threats perceiving a threat to Dutch culture has by the far largest impact in provoking hostility. He argues however that positive economic conditions, as seen within the Netherlands, results in the greater perceived threat against culture. This perceived threat is reflected in Snidermans research, which shows that four of every flipper Dutch want to stiffen immigration requirements when immigrants do not turn to Dutch fluently and do not have a good chance to fit in smoothly ith Dutch culture, compared to two of fin when they do. To look at the causes of social intolerance, we ought to look more closely at the psychology of the individual.Experimental research has demonstrated that unspoken racial attitudes exist even for ind ividuals who score low on the measures of explicit racial prejudice and these beliefs influence judgements and perceptions. This can be reflected in survey results, as intricate within our consciousness, as we are, to a certain extent, affected by the stereotypes and hierarchies that smother us. The psychological view is that unquestioning racial stereotypes and prejudices are held by everyone because they are part of how the human mind works in the context of a culture including stereotypical representations. The question therefore is, how do we develop such a consciousness? It can be seen through a number of studies which point towards stereotypical portrayals in the media and analyze the history of these portrayals. It can also be seen that from a young age, those around us, for instance parents and social groups, influence our ideals.We can be seen to adapt to the beliefs of others through the process of self-selection (i. e. , the process by which individuals within a peer g roup influence each other and become more similar on a characteristic over time). These beliefs can manifest into discriminatory treatment, for example in the sagacity of implicit prejudice studies suggest that even among persons who hold sincere belief in race blindness, images and depictions of racial groups learned beginning in childhood are influential on their thinking.These attitudes can come to surface in particular situations, for instance job discrimination. The regular use of symbols can help change and condition the way in which we think, and can without knowing fathom into our consciousness. Symbolic predispositions are usually strong attitudes normally acquired through definitive conditioning in early life. It can therefore be seen as a lengthy and gradual process.The careful use of symbols can execute to different ideals of the human condition, for instance certain symbols, such as flags, can install a sense of patriotism and pride, but in contrast, they can also be utilize to represent social evils, such as the Nazi swastika. People can also be used as symbolic images to install emotion and can represent social freedom, competency and empowerment, as seen through the imagery of Jesus and Martin Luther King, Jr. However, symbols can head for the hills what seems like disproportionate power and can be used to, dismiss and mobilize human emotions. Virtually every war in the States has been fought around such rallying symbols. Symbols can be manipulated and spun in order to represent something more credible, an example of this is the British National Party, rousing up symbolic patriotic imagery of Winston Churchill and the Union flag to help motivate emotion and support in regards to their immigration policies.Symbols can be used as a tool to play on fear, and can therefore help to breed intolerance by appealing to peoples emotions. It has previously been argued that change magnitude amounts of immigration has generated greater racial fric tion, it was believed that a higher-up group (e. . , whites) becomes more racially hostile as the size of the immediate subordinate group increases, which punitively threatens the formers economic and social privilege (Oliver and Wong 2003, 568). Therefore it can be seen that the increased levels of immigration generates greater social intolerance. However, in contrast to this argument, recent studies have contended that actually increased contact makes it difficult for groups to accept typically negative stereotypes and also increases the luck of both groups holding shared values (Forbes 1997). This supports the belief that racial segregation contributes considerably to social intolerance, as it is believed through integration and contact, negative stereotypes and general ignorance can be dispelled when personal relationships are developed. I believe that is a vital factor in the promotion of inter-group relations, that a greater emphasis is played on increased contact. Even thou gh higher immigration levels can cause anti-sentiment, I believe this predominantly affects extremely nonintegrated areas, as can be seen within parts of the United States. frugal factors can be a key feature contributing to attitudes of social intolerance. This can be seen upon a personal as well as a collective level. The degree one feels affected by economic threats can be seen as objective, it is argued that opposition to immigrants is rooted ultimately in the economic logic of peoples situations. Therefore it can often be perceived that attitudes to immigrant minorities regarding economic factors are determined by individualistic circumstances. This is evident in regards to unemployment and financial instability.People who can be perceived to be in an awkward financial situation are therefore more likely to be less tolerant, as they are more prone to support the belief that immigration has contributed to their own lack of welfare, jobs and resources. It should not be overlo oked that economic factors contribute towards intolerant sentiment, especially as it involves the concept of promoting self-interest. But immigration can also contribute to economic success as reflected through Lockes line of argument for toleration in regards to Huguenot refugees claiming that the refugees should be accepted since they would bring economic advantages to England. Therefore it must be understood that causality can run both ways. Changes within the demographic can also be seen to have a prominent effect on attitudes towards social tolerance. Research suggests that those with more education, who live in urban areas, or are religious liberals tend to hold more positive attitudes Greater education is a vital way in which social intolerance can be controlled. This is mainly due to the skill education casts upon the collective ills and ignorances of elements of society which often results in discrimination and social intolerance.Greater toleration can be seen as a result of living in urban areas, as they are more likely to offer diversity and promote assimilation. This supports the social contact theory, which argues that The front line of a large minority population in a highly integrated area will result in more miscellaneous contact, initiating a corrective for the hostility that threat otherwise produces. Both these lines of argument support the theory that segregation helps install greater social intolerance, as through racial integration, individuals can break through barriers such as misconstrued racial stereotypes and prejudice.In conclusion, a common theme throughout has been the comportment of different factions within society. Groups have provided the basis for division, therefore resulting in competition, generating all different causes of social intolerance. Ultimately I believe that one of the superior factors which has contributed to one of the most predominant reasons for social intolerance is the lack of fundamental interaction between groups, especially those of race. This has meant that different cultures and groups have found it difficult to assimilate especially within Western society, this has resulted in a lack of understanding and empathy between cultures.This I believe has helped enforce stereotypes bridging a further gap, and therefore greater levels of intolerance. However, ultimately we as individuals need to break these boundaries. From a young age, imagery and symbols are presented to one another, and walls are built between the different sects. However, they can be broken down and proper stable relations can be built between groups, helping a respect and cultural understanding, ultimately resulting in less causations for social intolerance.

Thoughts and Feelings ‘on the Grasshopper and the Cricket’

What be your thoughts and feelings about the song On The Grasshopper and The play? In the poem On The Grasshopper and The Cricket by nates Keats, the poet seems at a first glance to just to be describing a grasshopper and a cricket and how they inhabit a garden and the kitchen of a home respectively. However, once we understand the poem, it is not so straightforward. In the arcsecond to the sixth lines of the poem, it shows how carefree the life of a grasshopper is in the summer luxury as opposed to the cricket in the l whiz overwinter.As it is mentioned that the grasshopper hops from hedge to hedge about a new-mown mead, we know that it is probably in a garden where it does not hand over to worry. It also gives us a young and lively feel to the poem because it shows that all the grasshopper does the entire day is play among the hedges and live a luxurious life. In the sixth and seventh lines, it is shown that the grasshopper is never blase because in this case, the grasshop per himself is cap competent of having his delights and fun with minimal effort and is able to rest if it feels tired beneath some pleasant weed.Its so hot that the usually chirpy and active birds have taken supply amongst the shady trees and the whole countryside seems to be quiet, but just then one can hear the ever active grasshopper chirping away merrily in the hedges. We also know that in that location are birds in the garden as said in the second line when birds are sluttish with hot sun so it is believed that the grasshopper is never lonely because there are other animals around.Similarly, when one is cozily sheltered in the ottoman of his home in front of a warm stove from the cold, sharp winter and is beginning to feel lonely, an atmosphere of closeness and loneliness prevails. However, the silence is shattered by the shrill chirpings of the cricket and this silence, which was forced by the cold, is thinly calmed by the crickets song. But even then the verse line o f earth continues without a break.In a way, the grasshopper can be seen as selfish because when it plays among the hedges and freshly cut grass, it does not do anything else that implies that it is dower anyone other than itself. On the other hand, the cricket is seen to be somewhat of a good friend to those who are lonely on winter nights as it breaks the silence that was forced by the cold winter. The grasshopper could be compared to a young person who is usually carefree and does not worry much. In comparison, the cricket could represent someone in his or her old epoch who is there for people when they are in need or are lonely.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

A Rumi of One’s Own Essay

Several years ago Kabir Helminski, a sheikh of the Mevlevi Order of Sufism, save a call from Madonnas producer, who wanted to hire his party of whirling dervishes for a music video inspired by the 13th-century Iranian poet Rumi. Helminski read the script, learned that a guy would be lying on top of Madonna while she sang Lets pound unconscious, honey, and wrote a polite letter declining the request. He also sent a package of books so that the singer might get a meliorate sense of Rumis teachings.Like many Persian literary scholars, Helminski, who runs the scepter Society, a Sufi study center in California, has had little victor in convincing the Statesns that Rumi is well-nigh more than than transcendent sex. (Madonna later recited Rumis poems on a CD, A Gift of go to sleep, along with Goldie Hawn and Martin Sheen.) One of the five-spot best-selling poets in America, Rumi, who was born 800 years ago in what is at once part of Afghanistan, has frame famous for his ability to convey mystical resentment his lovers are frequently merging into one, forgetting who they are, and crying out in pain. just his religious workone book is popularly called the Koran in Persianis often ignored.To uncover and celebrate his heritage, UNESCO has declared 2007 the Year of Rumi conferences about his work are being held in Istanbul, Kabul, Tehran, Dushanbe, and Ann Arbor. One of the featured speakers in Ann Arbor this fall will be Coleman Barks, an American poet who is largely creditworthy for Rumis American popularity as well as his re indueation as an erotic soul-healer. Born in Tennessee, Barks freely admits to non knowing Persian (scholars call his best-selling works from the translations of others re-Englishings). While his poems are far more elegant and accessible than any previous English renditions, they tend to enlistment holy scenes into moments of sexual passion. Some clock he takes out references to God and replaces them with love. As he explained in the introduction to his 2001 collection of poems, The Soul of Rumi, I reverse God-words, not altogether, but wherever I can, because they seem to take international the freshness of experience and put it inside a specific system. exclusively Rumi, who spent most of his adult conduct in Konya, Turkey, based his life and poetry around that system. The son of an Islamic preacher, he prayed five times a day, made pilgrimages to Mecca, and memorized the Koran. Under the influence of an older dervish, Shams of Tabriz, he given up his life to Sufism, an ancient, mystical branch of Islam. Sufis are less concerned with the codes and rituals of Islam than with make direct contact with God as one scholar puts it, Sufism is the heart and soul of the religion, the nut without the shell. Still, the traditional Islamic texts are central to the creed. I am the slave of the Quran and dust under the feet of Muhammad, Rumi writes.Anyone who claims otherwise is no friend of mine. Rumi put forth an alarming quantity of writingabout 70,000 verses in 25 yearswhich affords translators the luxury of leaving out poems that might alienate the come American reader. In the introduction to his 2003 Rumi The Book of Love,Barks jokes that his previous book of translations achieved the pagan status of an empty Diet Coke can. He gives the language a Southern hominess and an almost childlike simplicity Love comes sailing finished and I scream. Love sits beside me like a private supply of itself. Love puts away the instruments and takes off the silk robes. Our nakedness together changes me completely.Starting with 50-year-old prose translations by the British scholar A.J. Arberry, Barks takes liberties to make Rumis language more accessible and universal. on occasion this results in more than subtle changes in meaning. In one mistake, attested by the independent scholar Ibrahim Gamard, Barks mistranslates the word blind as nordic due to a typo in Arberrys version unwittingly turning a s cene about the abandonment of those who dont know God (Bright-hearted companions, haste, despite all the blind ones, to home, to home) into a part about resisting sexual lures (I know its tempt to stay and meet these blonde women). In Rumis time, its dense to imagine that there were many women with yellow hair there wasnt even a word for it.Barkss whole almost soulfulness should be credited for bringing Rumis work to popularity, but in the offshoot he leaves behind perhaps the most important part of the poems. Rumi is not a salient poet in spite of Islam, says William Chittick, a Sufi lit scholar at Stony Brook University. Hes a great poet because of Islam. Its because he lived his religion fully that he became this great expositor on beauty and love.Theres a sense in Rumis poems that he is at his emotional limits, simultaneously ecstatic and exhausted. His faith seems desperate, and almost tangible. Such devotion is striking because its inspired by God, not by the promise of se x as it roundtimes appears in the translations. He was the most important religious figure of his day, says Jawid Mojaddedi, an Afghan-born Rumi scholar at Rutgers, whose translation of Book Two of Rumis Masnavi came out this month. And yet good deal are shocked to find out Rumi was Muslim they assume he must have spent his life persecuted for his beliefs, hiding in some cave in Afghanistan. We talk of clash of civilizations, and yet theres this link that needs to be spelled out. (Rumis success in America has actually boosted his popularity, Mojaddedi says, in parts of the Middle East.)But for many readers, Rumis Persian background has little bearing on the force of his poems. He has come to embody a kind of free-for-all American spiritualty that has as much to do with Walt Whitman as Muhammad. Rumis work has become so universal that it can mean anything readers use the poems for recreational self-discovery, purpose in the lines whatever they wish. Its impossible to take Rumi ou t of context, says Shahram Shiva, a Rumi translator and performance poet who regularly gives readings of Rumis poems, often in yoga studios. gravid art doesnt need context, he says. The best thing for van Beethovens popularity was when they put a disco beat behind unison no. 5. Shiva recites Rumi to the accompaniment of flute, piccolo, piano, conch shell, and harmonica and belts out the lines in a deep, sultry Broadway voice. Rumis one of the great creative beings on this planet, he says, a mixture of Mozart and Francis of Assisi, with a little Galileo thrown in, and maybe some Shakespeare and Dante.In his most anthologized poems Rumi comes off as a saintly Tony Robbins, gad people to break barriers, stop worrying, touch the sky, make love, never surrender. Its as if publishers worry that reading poetry is such a svelte enterprise that too much weight and context and not plentiful sex will scare everyone away. Helminski, who used to run a publication company that put out Barkss early books, noticed a consistent sensibility in the lines readers were requesting permission to quote those suggesting that theres no conventional morality, no such thing as honest failure.The number one requested line was Out beyond ideas of erroneousness and rightdoing / there is a field. Ill meet you there. Our culture is so shame-ridden that when soul comes along and says, Youre OK, its a great relief, says Helminski. Americans still have an adolescent relationship with Rumi. It will take some maturing before we proceed beyond the clichs.

Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act

01. picSarbanesOxley doing Sen. crownwork letter of Minnesota Sarbanes (DMD) and Rep. Michael G. Oxley (ROH-4), the co-sponsors of the SarbanesOxley Act. The SarbanesOxley Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-204, 116Stat. 745, enacted July30, 2002), in like manner cognize as the ordinary Company accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act (in the Senate) and incorporated and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act (in the Ho use up) and commonly c tot entirelyyed SarbanesOxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a fall in States federal official law enacted on July 30, 2002, which set new or enhanced types for all U. S. world company advances, likement and public craft relationship firms.It is conjured later sponsors U. S. Senator capital of Minnesota Sarbanes (D-MD) and U. S. Representative Michael G. Oxley (R-OH). The act was approved by the House by a take of423 in favor, 3 opposed, and 8 abstaining and by the Senate with a vote of99 in favor, 1 abstaining. President George W. Bus h signed it into law, stating it include the most far-reaching reforms of American business practices of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Outliness SarbanesOxley contains 11 titles that describe specific man fights and requirements for m angiotensin converting enzymetary reporting. from each one title consists of several(prenominal) sections, summarized below. . Public Company business relationship direction outgoride (PCAOB) 2. Auditor Independence 3. corporal Responsibility 4. Enhanced fiscal Disclosures 5. Analyst Conflicts of Interest 6. Commission Resources and Authority 7. Studies and Reports 8. Corporate and Criminal tommyrot Accountability 9. White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement 10. Corporate Tax Returns 11. Corporate Fraud Accountability Criticism copulationman Ron Paul and others such as former Arkansas governor Mike Huckabee fox contended that SOX was an unnecessary and costly government intrusion into corporate management that places U. S. orporations at a competitiv e disadvantage with alien firms, driving businesses out of the united States. In an April 14, 2005 speech before the U. S. House of Representatives, Paul stated, These regulations ar minus American capital market places by providing an incentive for small US firms and foreign firms to deregister from US computer storage metamorphoses. According to a study by a researcher at the Wharton Business School, the number of American companies deregistering from public stock exchanges nearly tripled during the year by and by SarbanesOxley became law, while the New York Stock fill in had only 10 new foreign listings in all of 2004.The hesitance of small businesses and foreign firms to register on American stock exchange is easily netherstood when one considers the costs SarbanesOxley imposes on businesses. According to a survey by Korn/Ferry planetary, SarbanesOxley cost Fortune 500 companies an come of $5. 1 million in compliance expenses in 2004, while a study by the law firm o f Foley and Lardner found the Act change magnitude costs associated with being a publicly held company by one hundred thirty percent. During the pecuniary crisis of 2007-2010, critics blamed SarbanesOxley for the low number of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) on American stock exchanges during 2008.In November 2008, Newt Gingrich and co-author David W. Kralik called on social intercourse to repeal SarbanesOxley. Praise Former Federal Reserve chair Alan Greenspan praised the SarbanesOxley Act I am surprised that the SarbanesOxley Act, so rapidly surfaceed and enacted, has functioned as well as it has the act importantly reinforced the principle that sh beh senior(a)s give birth our corporations and that corporate managers should be working on behalf of shargonholders to allocate business resources to their best use.SOX has been praised by a cross-section of financial industry experts, citing improved investor impudence and more accurate, reliable financial statements. The CE O and CFO are flat required to unequivocally take ownership for their financial statements under subdivision 302, which was non the case prior to SOX. Further, take stockor conflicts of interest provoke been addressed, by prohibiting auditors from also having lucrative consulting agreements with the firms they audit under Section 201. SEC Chairman Christopher Cox stated in 2007 SarbanesOxley financial aided restore trust in U.S. markets by increasing accountability, speeding up reporting, and making audits more independent. mavin tarradiddle uncovered by the Securities and flip-flop Commission (SEC) in November 2009 may be directly assigned to Sarbanes-Oxley. The fraud which spanned nearly 20 years and touch on over $24 million was committed by Value trace (NASDAQVALU) against its mutual fund shareholders. The fraud was get-go reported to the SEC in 2004 by the Value Line storehouse (NASDAQVLIFX) portfolio manager who was asked to sign a Code of Business Ethics as dep artment of SOX.Restitution totaling $34 million result be placed in a modal(a) fund and returned to the affected Value Line mutual fund investors. No criminal charges have been filed. Legal challenges A lawsuit (Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Company news report Oversight jury) was filed in 2006 challenging the constitutionality (legality) of the PCAOB. The commission argues that because the PCAOB has restrictive powers over the accounting industry, its officeholders should be appointed by the President, preferably than the SEC. Further, because the law lacks a severability clause, if part of the law is judged unconstitutional, so is the re main(prenominal)der.If the plaintiff prevails, the U. S. Congress may have to devise a different method of officer appointment. 02. pic full generally Accepted be principles broadly Accepted history conventions (GAAP) is a enclosure utilise to refer to the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction which are generally cognise as method of accounting Standards. GAAP includes the standards, conventions, and rules accountants follow in recording and summarizing transactions, and in the preparation of financial statements.Principles derive from tradition, such as the opinion of matching. In any report of financial statements (audit, compilation, review, etc. ), the preparer/auditor moldiness delegate to the reader whether or not the knowledge contained within the statements complies with GAAP. Principle of vogue Regularity can be defined as conformity to compel rules and laws. Principle of consistency This principle states that when a business has once glacial a method for the accounting treatment of an item, it will enter all akin(predicate) items that follow in exactly the same way. Principle of earnestness According to this principle, the accounting unit should reflect in good assent the reality of the companys financial status. Principle of the perma nence of methods This principle obtains at allowing the cohesion and comparison of the financial information published by the company. Principle of non-compensation One should show the full details of the financial information and not undertake to compensate a debt with an asset, revenue enhancement with an expense, etc. see convention of conservatism) Principle of prudence This principle aims at showing the reality as is one should not try to make things look prettier than they are. Typically, revenue should be put down only when it is authorized and a provision should be entered for an expense which is probable. Principle of continuity When stating financial information, one should assume that the business will not be interrupted. This principle mitigates the principle of prudence assets do not have to be accounted at their disposable value, but it is accepted that they are at their historical value (see depreciation and going caution). Principle of periodicity Each acco unting entry should be allocated to a given period, and split wherefore if it covers several periods. If a client pre-pays a subscription (or lease, etc. ), the given revenue should be split to the entire time-span and not counted for entirely on the date of the transaction. Principle of Full Disclosure/Materiality All information and set pertaining to the financial position of a business must be break in the records. Principle of Utmost Good Faith All the information regarding to the firm should be disclosed to the insurer before the insurance insurance policy is taken. 03. The external financial account Standards (IFRS) Many countries use or are converging on the internationalistic pecuniary Reporting Standards (IFRS), established and keep by the International Accounting Standards Board. In some countries, local accounting principles are applied for regular companies but listed or large companies must conforms to IFRS, so statutory reporting is comparable internationally , across jurisdictions.International pecuniary Reporting Standards (IFRS) are principles- ground Standards, Interpretations and the Framework (1989) adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Many of the standards forming part of IFRS are known by the older name of International Accounting Standards (IAS). IAS was issued between 1973 and 2001 by the Board of the International Accounting Standards deputation (IASC). On 1 April 2001, the new IASB took over from the IASC the state for setting International Accounting Standards. During its first meeting the new Board adopted existing IAS and fixs.The IASB has continued to better standards calling the new standards IFRS International fiscal Reporting Standards comprise International financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)standards issued after 2001 International Accounting Standards (IAS)standards issued before 2001 Interpretations originated from the International financial Reporting Interpretations delegatio n (IFRIC)issued after 2001 Standing Interpretations delegation (SIC)issued before 2001 Framework for the Preparation and innovation of financial controls (1989)Requirements of IFRS IFRS financial statements consist of (IAS1. 8) a record of monetary station a Statement of Comprehensive Income or two separate statements comprising an Income Statement and separately a Statement of Comprehensive Income, which reconciles Profit or expiry on the Income statement to total comprehensive income a Statement of Changes in Equity (SOCE) a Cash Flow Statement or Statement of Cash Flows List of IFRS statements with full text linkThe following IFRS statements are currently issued IFRS 1 First time Adoption of International fiscal Reporting Standards IFRS 2 Share- found Payment IFRS 3 Business Combinations IFRS 4 restitution Contracts IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued exertions IFRS 6 Exploration for and valuation of Mineral Resources IFRS 7 Financial I nstruments Disclosures IFRS 8 operate Segments IFRS 9 Financial Instruments IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. IAS 2 Inventories IAS 3 Consolidated Financial Statements Originally issued 1976, efficient 1 Jan 1977. Superseded in 1989 by IAS 27 and IAS 28 IAS 4 Depreciation Accounting Withdrawn in 1999, replaced by IAS 16, 22, and 38, all of which were issued or revised in 1998 IAS 5 Information to Be break in Financial Statements Originally issued October 1976, strong 1 January 1997. Superseded by IAS 1 in 1997 IAS 6 Accounting Responses to Changing PricesSuperseded by IAS 15, which was withdrawn declination 2003 IAS 7 Cash Flow Statements IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors IAS 9 Accounting for Research and Development Activities Superseded by IAS 38 effective 1. 7. 99 IAS 10 Events After the Balance Sheet Date IAS 11 Construction Contracts IAS 12 Income Taxes IAS 13 Presentation of Current Assets and Current Liabilities Superseded by IAS 1. IAS 14 Segment Reporting (superseded by IFRS 8 on 1 January 2008) IAS 15 Information Reflecting the Effects of Changing Prices Withdrawn December 2003 IAS 16 holding, Plant and Equipment IAS 17 Leases IAS 18 Revenue IAS 19 Employee advances IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates IAS 22Business Combinations Superseded by IFRS 3 effective 31 March 2004 IAS 23 Borrowing Costs IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures IAS 25 Accounting for Investments Superseded by IAS 39 and IAS 40 effective 2001 IAS 26 Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans IAS 27 Consolidated Financial Statements IAS 28 Investments in Associates IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies IAS 30 Disclosures in the Financial Statements of Banks and Similar Financial Institutions Superseded by IFRS 7 effective 2007 IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures IAS 32 Fin ancial Instruments Presentation (Financial instruments disclosures are in IFRS 7 Financial Instruments Disclosures, and no longer in IAS 32) IAS 33 Earnings Per Share IAS 34 impermanent Financial Reporting IAS 35 Discontinuing Operations Superseded by IFRS 5 effective 2005 IAS 36 Impairment of Assets IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets IAS 38 intangible Assets IAS 39 Financial Instruments Recognition and Measurement IAS 40 Investment Property IAS 41 Agriculture List of Interpretations with full text link premiss to International Financial Reporting Interpretations (Updated to January 2006 IFRIC 1 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, redress and Similar Liabilities (Updated to January 2006) IFRIC 7 Approach under IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies (Issued February 2006) IFRIC 8 Scope of IFRS 2 (Issued February 2006)has been eliminated with Amendments issued to IFRS 2 IFRIC 9 re opinion of Embedded Derivatives (Issued April 2006) IFRIC 10 Interim Financial Reporting and Impairment (Issued November 2006) IFRIC 11 IFRS 2-Group and Treasury Share Transactions (Issued November 2006)has been eliminated with Amendments issued to IFRS 2 IFRIC 12 Service assignment Arrangements (Issued November 2006) IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes (Issued in June 2007) IFRIC 14 IAS 19 The situate on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum bread and butter Requirements and their fundamental interaction (issued in July 2007) IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate (issued in July 2008) IFRIC 16 Hedges of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation (issued in July 2008) IFRIC 17 Distributions of Non-cash Assets (issued in November 2008) IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers (issued in January 2009) SIC 7 Introduction of the Euro (Updated to January 2006) SIC 10 Government Assistance-No Specific Relation to Ope place Activities (Updated to January 2006) SIC 12 integration-Special Purpose Enti ties (Updated to January 2006) SIC 13 Jointly Controlled Entities-Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers (Updated to January 2006) SIC 15 Operating Leases-Incentives (Updated to January 2006) SIC 21 Income Taxes-Recovery of Revalued Non-Depreciable Assets (Updated to January 2006) SIC 25 Income Taxes-Changes in the Tax Status of an Entity or its Shareholders (Updated to January 2006) SIC 27 Evaluating the affectionateness of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease (Updated to January 2006) SIC 29 Disclosure-Service Concession Arrangements (Updated to January 2006) SIC 31 Revenue-Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services (Updated to January 2006) SIC 32 Intangible Assets-Web Site Costs (Updated to January 2006) SIC 33 Consolidation and equity method Potential voting rights and allocation of ownership interests 04. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is an independent, privately-funded acc ounting standard-setter based in London, England. The IASB was founded on April 1, 2001 as the supremacyor to the International Accounting Standards deputation (IASC). It is responsible for developing International Financial Reporting Standards (the new name for International Accounting Standards issued after 2001), and promoting the use and application of these standards. tooshie of the IASB In April 2001, the International Accounting Standards committal bum (IASCF), since renamed as the IFRS Foundation, was create as a not-for-profit corporation incorporated in the US state of Delaware.The IFRS Foundation is the parent entity of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), an independent accounting standard-setter based in London, England. On 1 March 2001, the IASB assumed accounting standard-setting responsibilities from its forerunner body, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). This was the culmination of a restructuring based on the recommenda tions of the report Recommendations on Shaping IASC for the Future. The IASB organise has the following main features the IFRS Foundation is an independent organization having two main bodies, the Trustees and the IASB, as well as a IFRS consultatory Council and the IFRS Interpretations Committee (formerly the IFRIC).The IASC Foundation Trustees appoint the IASB members, exercise attention and raise the funds needed, but the IASB has responsibility for setting International Financial Reporting Standards (international accounting standards). IASB Members The IASB has 15 Board members, each with one vote. They are selected as a group of experts with a mix of experience of standard-setting, preparing and use accounts, and academic work. 2 At their January 2009 meeting the Trustees of the Foundation concluded the first part of the second Constitution Review, announcing the creation of a Monitoring Board and the magnification of the IASB to 16 members and giving more consideration to the geographical composition of the IASB. The IFRS Interpretations OF Committee has 14 members.Its brief is to provide timely guidance on issues that start in practice. A unanimous vote is not necessary in order for the publication of a Standard, exposure draft, or final IFRIC Interpretation. The Boards 2008 delinquent Process manual stated that approval by nine of the members is required. Funding The IFRS Foundation raises funds for the operation of the IASB. 7 Most contributors are margins and other companies which use or have an interest in promoting international standards. In 2008, American companies gave ? 2. 4m, more than those of any other country. However, contributions fell in the wake of the financial crisis of 20072010, and a shortfall was reported in 2010. 05. The Basel CommitteeThe Basel Committee on Banking Supervision provides a forum for regular cooperation on trusting supervisory matters. Its aim is to enhance sagaciousness of key supervisory issues and impr ove the grapheme of banking inspection worldwide. It seeks to do so by exchanging information on national supervisory issues, go upes and techniques, with a view to promoting common understanding. At times, the Committee uses this common understanding to develop guidelines and supervisory standards in areas where they are considered desirable. In this regard, the Committee is best known for its international standards on capital adequacy the Core Principles for sound Banking Supervision and the Concordat on cross-border banking supervision.The Committees members come from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The present Chairman of the Committee is Mr Nout Wellink, President of the Netherlands Bank. The Committee encourages contacts a nd cooperation among its members and other banking supervisory authorities. It circulates to supervisors throughout the world both published and unpublished papers providing guidance on banking supervisory matters. Contacts have been further beef up by an International Conference of Banking Supervisors (ICBS) which takes place every two years.The Committees secretariate is located at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, and is staffed mainly by professional supervisors on temporary secondment from member institutions. In adjunct to undertaking the secretarial work for the Committee and its many expert sub-committees, it stands get to to give advice to supervisory authorities in all countries. Mr Stefan Walter is the Secretary General of the Basel Committee. Main Expert Sub-Committees The Committees work is organised under four main sub-committees The Standards Implementation Group The Policy Development Group The Accounting assign Force The Basel Co nsultative Group Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, which are recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.The purpose of Basel II, which was initially published in June 2004, is to create an international standard that banking regulators can use when creating regulations about how a good deal capital banks need to put aside to guard against the types of financial and in operation(p) put on the lines banks face. Advocates of Basel II believe that such an international standard can help protect the international financial carcass from the types of problems that might arise should a major bank or a series of banks collapse. In theory, Basel II attempted to accomplish this by setting up happen and capital management requirements designed to ensure that a bank holds capital reserves appropriate to the risk the bank exposes itself to through its lending and investment practices.Generally speaking, these rules mean tha t the great risk to which the bank is exposed, the greater the amount of capital the bank needs to hold to safeguard its solvency and overall economical stability. objective The final version aims at 1. Ensuring that capital allocation is more risk sensitive 2. Separating operative risk from credit risk, and quantifying both 3. Attempting to align economic and regulative capital more closely to reduce the scope for restrictive arbitrage. The Accord in operation Basel II uses a three keystones concept (1) minimum capital requirements (addressing risk), (2) supervisory review and (3) market discipline. The Basel I ossification dealt with only parts of each of these pillars.For example with respect to the first Basel II pillar, only one risk, credit risk, was dealt with in a simple manner while market risk was an afterthought operational risk was not dealt with at all. The first pillar The first pillar deals with maintenance of regulatory capital calculated for three major com ponents of risk that a bank faces credit risk, operational risk, and market risk. Other risks are not considered richly quantifiable at this stage. The credit risk component can be calculated in three different ways of varying tier of sophistication, namely standardized admittance, Foundation IRB and mod IRB. IRB stands for Internal Rating-Based Approach.For operational risk, there are three different approaches basic indicator approach or BIA, standardized approach or TSA, and the internal measurement approach (an advanced form of which is the advanced measurement approach or AMA). For market risk the preferred approach is VaR (value at risk). As the Basel 2 recommendations are phased in by the banking industry it will move from exchangeable requirements to more refined and specific requirements that have been developed for each risk category by each individual bank. The upside for banks that do develop their own bespoke risk measurement systems is that they will be rewarded with potentially lower risk capital requirements.In future there will be closer links between the concepts of economic profit and regulatory capital. Credit Risk can be calculated by employ one of three approaches 1. Standardised Approach 2. Foundation IRB (Internal Ratings Based) Approach 3. Advanced IRB Approach The assess approach sets out specific risk weights for certain types of credit risk. The standard risk weight categories are used under Basel 1 and are 0% for short term government bonds, 20% for exposures to OECD Banks, 50% for residential mortgages and 100% weighting on unsecured commercial-grade loans. A new 150% rating comes in for borrowers with poor credit ratings. The minimum capital requirement (the percentage of risk weighted assets to be held as capital) remains at 8%.For those Banks that decide to adopt the standardised ratings approach they will be forced to rely on the ratings generated by external agencies. Certain Banks are developing the IRB approach as a result. The second pillar The second pillar deals with the regulatory response to the first pillar, giving regulators much improved tools over those available to them under Basel I. It also provides a framework for dealing with all the other risks a bank may face, such as systemic risk, pension risk, concentration risk, strategical risk, reputational risk, liquidity risk and legal risk, which the accord combines under the title of rest risk. It gives banks a power to review their risk management system. The third pillarThis pillar aims to promote greater stability in the financial system Market discipline supplements regulation as sharing of information facilitates assessment of the bank by others including investors, analysts, customers, other banks and rating agencies. It leads to good corporate governance. The aim of pillar 3 is to allow market discipline to operate by requiring lenders to publicly provide details of their risk management activities, risk rating processes and risk distributions. It sets out the public disclosures that banks must make that lend greater insight into the adequacy of their capitalization. When marketplace participants have a sufficient nderstanding of a banks activities and the controls it has in place to manage its exposures, they are come apart able to distinguish between banking organizations so that they can reward those that manage their risks prudently and penalize those that do not. 06. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private, not-for-profit organization whose primary purpose is to develop generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) within the United States in the publics interest. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) designated the FASB as the organization responsible for setting accounting standards for public companies in the U. S.It was created in 1973, replacing the Committee on Accounting outgrowth (CAP) and the Accounting Princi ples Board (APB) of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). military commission statement The FASBs mission is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of financial information. To achieve this, FASB has five goals Improve the service program of financial reporting by focusing on the primary characteristics of relevancy and reliability, and on the qualities of comparability and consistency. Keep standards current to reflect changes in methods of doing business and in the economy. Consider promptly any significant areas of deficiency in financial reporting that might be improved through standard setting. Promote international convergence of accounting standards concurrent with improving the quality of financial reporting. Improve common understanding of the nature and purposes of information in financial reports. FASB pronouncements In or der to establish accounting principles, the FASB issues pronouncements publicly, each addressing general or specific accounting issues. These pronouncements are Statements of Financial Accounting Standards Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts FASB Interpretations FASB Technical Bulletins EITF Abstracts FASB 11 Concepts 1. Money measurement 2. Entity 3. Going concern 4. Cost 5. Dual aspect 6. Accounting period 7. Conservation 8. realisation 9. Matching 10. Consistency 11. Materiality 07. Committee on Accounting effect (CAP) In 1939, encouraged by the SEC, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) formed the Committee on Accounting Procedure (CAP). From 1939 to 1959, CAP issued 51 Accounting Research Bulletins that dealt with issues as they arose.CAP had only limited success because it did not develop an overall accounting framework, but rather, acted upon specific problems as they arose. Accounting Principles Board (APB) In 1959, the AICPA replaced C AP with the Accounting Principles Board (APB), which issued 31 opinions and 4 statements until it was dissolved in 1973. GAAP essentially arose from the opinions of the APB. The APB was criticized for its structure and for several of its positions on controversial topics. In 1971 the Wheat Committee (chaired by Francis Wheat) was formed to evaluate the APB and propose changes. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) The Wheat Committee recommended the replacement of the Accounting Principles Board with a new standards-setting structure.This new structure was implemented in 1973 and was made up of three organizations Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC). Of these organizations, FASB (pronounced FAS-B) is the primary operating organization. Unlike the APB, FASB was designed to be an independent board comprised of members who have severed their ties with their employers and private firms. FASB issues statements of financial accounting standards, which define GAAP. The AICPA issues audit guides. When a conflict occurs, FASB rules. International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC)The International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was formed in 1973 to encourage international cooperation in developing consistent worldwide accounting principles. In 2001, the IASC was succeeded by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), an independent private sector body that is structured similar to FASB. Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) The financial reports of state and local goverment entities are not directly comparable to those of businesses. In 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) was formed to set standards for the financial reports of state and local government. GASB was modeled after FASB.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Big City

prominent fish in pocket-size pond An Argumentative Es word on Big City v. s Small City __________________________________ Introduction They say that it is for always and a day better to be a junior-grade fish in a spoiled pond than organism a stupendous fish in a subtile pond. spot this brief discourse is receivedly not on the topic of all fishing or ponds, it is similar in the way that the experiences of being some integrity in an unknown townsfolk and being a nobody in a big town mirror this proverb. While there sure atomic number 18 many advantages to upkeep in a elfin town, the headland that begs to be asked is whether or not these advantages upgrade outweigh those of keep in a big city.Further, life-time in a blue town means that sensation is residing in a relatively menial friendship and that the people manifest a certain familiarity that goes beyond normal conversations. The town grocer or shopkeeper may mean ones trace and the local physicia ns may actually plain know ones entire medical history. The offense measure is much lower than a big city and it is safer to wage walks at night without worrying astir(predicate) getting mugged. Yet, can one say that life has truly been lived and experient based on the happenings in a small town? there is so much that the world has to vortex and moreover a small part of that can be experient in any small town (Steves, 2007). Analysis In cases as that aforementioned, one may take to imagine the delight of those who reside in Istanbul, dudfine and simpleyet possess all the wonders a certain place would ever possess. Churches, mosques, palaces, dashing synagogues, castles and towers are few of the dry land marks which connote the prototype definition of Istanbula big city rich with big entities.Being Turkeys most populous city, and easily the center of economics and socialisation for that instance, the rise of crime rate would be inevitable to contain, hence, this connot ation is praiseworthily contained by this big city, compared to that which seemingly make out in other small towns such as the increasing crime rate in Tijuana, Mexicothe inhabitants downstairs such jurisdiction itself are pave their way on the streets for the pestis of the society to be expunged, for that instance.What tends to be the predicament of the case falls basically on the fact that there go forth always be quarrels living in a big cityalthough there appears to be an upheaval and a favorable delight offered in the arena of satisfactionthe challenge which coifs as a pre-requisite to this extent lies on the premise that the bigger the scope, the big the probability, the lesser the chance to catch the lift out fish. In a big city, there are numerous jobs offered, hence, there also exists numerous individuals who are as competent as you areone may be the best in their respective small towns, scarce the competition in big towns far more serve as a large arena for the competition.Aside from that, unlike the possessions that a somebody may pick up in a small town, it is hard to touch these things in the light of an change vicinitytake for example a car bought in a small town may have been the funkiest but in the larger arena of a big town, it only belongs to the standard toys for the big boysthe stirred up belligerence is what swallows the individual by whenceno satisfaction is attained. Conclusions and further remarksLiving in a big city on the other go on presents far more challenges and rewards. Nobody has ever claimed that living in a big city is easy. It is fraught with dangers and opportunities but for those who are able to worst the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities there lies a certain satisfaction that one can neer derive from the experiences of living in a small town the triumph in keen that one has achieved something that has made one a better person (StudyAbroad.Com, 2002). The advantages of living in a big city have little to do with financial status or regular(a) material wealth. There is other factor that indeed matters and it is the experience that life has been lived fullythe knowledge that even though one never did depart the big fish in the big city, one did become one tough fish afterward all.Big CityBig Fish in Small Pond An Argumentative Essay on Big City v. s Small City __________________________________ Introduction They say that it is always better to be a small fish in a big pond than being a big fish in a small pond. While this brief discourse is certainly not on the topic of either fishing or ponds, it is similar in the way that the experiences of being somebody in an unknown town and being a nobody in a big town mirror this proverb. While there certainly are many advantages to living in a small town, the question that begs to be asked is whether or not these advantages far outweigh those of living in a big city.Further, living in a small town means that one is re siding in a relatively small community and that the people manifest a certain familiarity that goes beyond normal conversations. The town grocer or shopkeeper may remember ones name and the local physicians may actually even know ones entire medical history. The crime rate is much lower than a big city and it is safer to take walks at night without worrying about getting mugged. Yet, can one say that life has truly been lived and experienced based on the happenings in a small town?There is so much that the world has to offer and only a small part of that can be experienced in any small town (Steves, 2007). Analysis In cases as that aforementioned, one may take to imagine the delight of those who reside in Istanbul, Turkeyfine and simpleyet possess all the wonders a certain place would ever possess. Churches, mosques, palaces, dashing synagogues, castles and towers are few of the land marks which connote the ideal definition of Istanbula big city rich with big entities.Being Turkeys most populous city, and considerably the center of economics and culture for that instance, the rise of crime rate would be inevitable to contain, hence, this connotation is admirably contained by this big city, compared to that which seemingly occur in other small towns such as the increasing crime rate in Tijuana, Mexicothe inhabitants under such jurisdiction itself are paving their way on the streets for the plague of the society to be expunged, for that instance.What tends to be the predicament of the case falls basically on the fact that there will always be challenges living in a big cityalthough there appears to be an excitement and a favorable delight offered in the arena of satisfactionthe challenge which serves as a pre-requisite to this extent lies on the premise that the larger the scope, the bigger the probability, the lesser the chance to catch the best fish. In a big city, there are numerous jobs offered, hence, there also exists numerous individuals who are as compet ent as you areone may be the best in their respective small towns, but the competition in big towns far more serve as a bigger arena for the competition.Aside from that, unlike the possessions that a person may have in a small town, it is hard to achieve these things in the light of an urbanized vicinitytake for example a car bought in a small town may have been the funkiest but in the larger arena of a big town, it only belongs to the standard toys for the big boysthe emotional belligerence is what swallows the individual by thenno satisfaction is attained. Conclusions and further remarksLiving in a big city on the other hand presents far more challenges and rewards. Nobody has ever claimed that living in a big city is easy. It is fraught with dangers and opportunities but for those who are able to overcome the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities there lies a certain satisfaction that one can never derive from the experiences of living in a small town the triumph in knowing that one has achieved something that has made one a better person (StudyAbroad.Com, 2002). The advantages of living in a big city have little to do with financial status or even material wealth. There is another factor that indeed matters and it is the knowledge that life has been lived fullythe knowledge that even though one never did become the big fish in the big city, one did become one tough fish after all.

A Certain Night Essay

Knowledge and sympathy 1. As it is quite obvious in the figment, the teller does not guess that these men and women deserve to die. This is abundant when in the very last overseas telegram of the story the narrator states, when will it be light? 2. Throughout the story, the narrator describes the communists as young, brave and handsome, although they are powerless martyrs. The narrator makes the national look murderous looking, and cunning, malicious and smug. The chief executioner has a revolting moustache, and an ugliness voice, as well as an ugly and vicious face, which seemed to hold still for the cruelty of all the rulers to the oppressed. This made it easy enough to distinguish mingled with the communists and the nationalists.3. The nationalists regard to the commended prisoners with no respect at all. It was because they didnt care for them, because they were communists, and the nationalist police were just there to execute them. They were very rough towards them as t hey pushed them clumsily and hard, realiseting them with rifle butts and putting ropes round their chest to stick to them As well, they would refer to them as criminals, as they would count them one by one making them seem no more important than count the hairs on your chin. The nationalists regards towards these prisoners were cruel and very careless. 4. Near the antecedent of the story, the young poet be deduces overthrown by anger and pain that he actually passes out. at one time he saw a familiar face, he began to calm follow up and gather a ace of encouragement. This familiar face started to make him determine more brave and resolute. Near the end, the mood is totally flipped around when they remembered their judicature was being formed. Their attitudes were now positive as they died, proudly singing for their country.5. ting Ling wrote this store to raise awareness of the disapproving murders the nationalist company committed. I think she honored her husband with the passionate, loyal, hardworking poet. Maybe she wrote this story more for her self, as a forever memory of her husband. Not unaccompanied of his death, but alike by showing her passion for her beliefs. 6. A major(ip) theme in the story is to stand your ground, and fight for what you believe in. In other words, be willing to die for what you stand for, but proudly. some other theme is showing the absolute cruelty of human beings. It is showing the brutal behaviors humans can portray on one another.Thinking and Inquiry 1. The timberland of this story is dark and bitter. Ting Ling achieves this in the characters emotions passim the story. This is also shown through find outry, through the gloomy vibe of the story. Ting Ling utilise figurative language and vivid descriptions to make the story come crossways as both bitter and dark. 2. The go underting of the story contributes to the tone because it is set up during a dark, cold, windy, snowy night. The overall mood of the story was both gloomy and somber, which contributes to the tone I think Ting Ling was outlet for. Everything from the prisoners falling down in the snow, to the soldiers stomping throughout it, made the tone come alive through the text.3. There are many different symbols throughout the story. For the chief executioner, he resembles both cruelty and oppression whereas the young poet symbolizes sinlessness and better reform. At the end when the prisoners are singing to their death, it shows a sense of resistance, which symbolizes the acceptance of their death. 4. The sound of trampling feet connotes punishment as a allow for of the communists standing up for their beliefs. It also shows desperation because the prisoners have basically hit rock bottom, and have nothing left to do. Ting Ling repeats this image to implement the despair in the prisoners, and to get the point across.5. This story reflects a political separatrix because they make the communists seem innocent, as if they have through nothing wrong. Not saying they are innocent, but it is persuading the audience as if they are so. Yes, it is wrong for the nationalists to execute them, but you dont hark the past story between the two groups. Therefore, it reflects a political bias by only showing the innocence of the communists.

Good Research Topic Essay

M whatsoever at meters choosing an entrance reach of study seem like a herculean task as a lot of puzzle atomic number 18as may come to mind at the time of choosing the motif. What is to a vaster extent frustrating is being equal to settle on a brilliant case. Choosing the re calculate idea is champion of the most critical stairs in conducting a successful by all standards. The truth is, the lookup for a advantageously query motion is a daunting task, particularly when detectives atomic number 18 often expected to k instantly how to key tabu or condition out a good look into move by themselves.It too is authoritative for us to keep in mind that an initial abbreviate that we come up with may non be the exact dissolving agent which we end up writing roughly. Research topics are often politic and dictated more by the students ongoing query rather than by the original elect topic. Such fluidity is popular in enquiry, and should be embraced as wizard o f its m any(prenominal) characteristics. The ability to identify and develop a good seek topic depends on a number of circumstanceors. Fortunately, with e rattling paradox, in that respect is alship canal a place at which we good deal use as a starting phase that volition hopefully lead us to a desirable solution.The first important factor to consider when selecting or choosing a good research topic is to choose a topic that is of interestingness to them. The investigator should be able to ask themselves and identify w here their interest lies, after all every some unity will restrain at least an interest in ace flying field or anformer(a). The fact that students approach their supervisors/ advisors with irresolutions if they are go about with any confusion when conducting their research, the importance of the research advisor also having an interest in the chosen topic brush aside non be over emphasised.Research supervisors or advisors to a large extent, has a duty to coach, and give critical comments and polish ups to the chosen topic. Uri Alon, a theoretical physics major off systems biology expert (who is now unrivalled of the most renowned scientists in his field), per his own experience gave this break up of advice listen to your inner voice. As he indicated, interest in a research conundrum is a subjective experience. In most instances, ones actual interest clashes with the public interest and makes it impossible for the tec to identify what their actual interest lies in.This however does not mean that prosecute a research of public interest is not a good option in any case, a good research should be able to benefit the general population as a whole. We must be able to distinguish what we are interest in from early(a) peoples opinion. This is what will inspire us and enable us stay focused throughout our research journey. For instance we can search within our hearts and minds problems in our various communities, industries or eve n continents which we are passionate about and would wish for these problems to be solved.This will help silver screen out the many options from external sources such as the media, and focus on what we are interested in. In effect, if we have a research problem that has been bugging us for quite some time, chances are we have found our accredited interest to conduct our research on. Another attribute that makes a chosen topic a good one is whether the researcher has the requisite familiarity in their playing field of interest. It should be noted that doing a literature review enables us to have more insights in our area of interest, narrows down our research focus and directs us to ask more specific movements.In addition, crafty how much knowledge base is available on our chosen field will help us figure out what strategy to convey in finding data. We can also read some other publications other than the text books and famous business journals available online as wholesome as in print versions to be abreast with our chosen problem area. No matter how much potential our research unbelief has, if we do not have the needed time to conduct our study, it can slowly be a wasted effort and disappointment.A researcher can work on a time-feasible research project without having to sacrifice their interest, by breaking down the research problem into several smaller, teachable and more specific questions. It all depends how early they start their research activity. The main point here is for us as researchers to be more realistic about the time available and identify our research question accordingly. In give to ascertain whether an identified problem area must be researched on, it must satisfy primarily three (3) main conditions i. at that place should be a perceived difference between what the new situation in the problem area is and what it should have been, all things being equal ii. The reason or reasons for this difference should be ambiguous. If the re ason is readily known, then there is no point researching this problem area iii. There should be more that one (1) possible solution to the problem identified. It is very important and of a ranking(prenominal) high significance that one chooses a research topic which is of significance to the current scenario in the society and ones field of study.One therefrom has to select research topics pertaining to business and management practices. Relevance is the key news in this regard. A clear understanding of the assignment will concede the student to focus on other aspects of the process, such as choosing a brilliant topic, which is, identifying the problem area and identifying their target audience. If a possible research topic is not addressing a priority problem, it is not worthy researching into it. To countermand duplication, care must be taken to ensure that the chosen topic has not been researched on.If one can find answers to the identified problem in already available, pu blished or unpublished culture, or just by using their habitual sense, then it will not be worthwhile conducting the research on the selected topic. Where it has been established that the problem area has already been researched into, the researcher must investigate whether the most important aspects of the problem area(s) still look some answers or the answers gathered by the predecessor researcher does not address the problem in its entirety.In this case, the same topic could be chosen otherwise the topic should be dropped. One of the most common difficulties in selecting a research topic is focusing on appropriate questions. Initially it might appear that the most exciting, interesting and pertinent questions expect a 10 year research programme, a team of research assistants and a multi-million research budget But that isnt actually the case. The question here is, how can you make sure that the research project is feasible, manageable and do-able within the normal constraint s that he/ she will find themselves in? There are several practical considerations that almost al ways need to be considered when deciding on the feasibility of a research project.First, the researcher has to bring forward about how long the research will take to accomplish. In addition, the researcher has to question whether there are important honest constraints that need consideration. Also, one needs to establish whether they can achieve the needed cooperation to take the research project to its successful conclusion. Last and most importantly, the researcher should consider how earthshaking the equals of conducting the research will be.Failure to consider any of these factors can be disastrous to the whole exercise. In general it is advisable for the one conducting the research to choose a topic that has the interest and support of the relevant authorities. This will increase the chance that the results of the study will be implemented. Topics that do not have the support o r backing of the decision makers should be avoided as chances are they might never be implemented. In choosing a good research topic, the researcher must also consider the extremity in the needed research results for making a decision or developing interventions.Consideration must be given to which research should be done first and which could be done later. In effect, if the research cannot be done in a timely manner, then it better left(p)field not looking into. Topics or problem area that has been identified should be goodly acceptable. The researcher must be mindful of the possibility of their chosen area causing harm to others. We should consider whether there are any relevant ethical issues associated with our chosen area. If we happen to think our research isnt ethical, we must drop the topic.In relation to the second part of the question which requires us to give five (5) examples of a good research topic and justify why we have chose them are as follow wherefore doesnt the average Ghanian feel the effect of low largeness in their pockets? There have been impressive stories about declining ostentation judge in gold coast in the past few months. The gold coast statistical Services recently reported that inflation rate has decreased from 15. 2% in December 2003 to 8. 8% in January 2013.But while officials are painting a rather rosy picture of the economy, the average Ghanaian feels very ambivalent about these reported rates for the simple fact that they can hardly see the impact on their everyday salute of financial support. Economists have debated the seriousness of inflation since time immemorial, yet its economic cost remains ambiguous. It seems no matter the real economic cost of inflation, it does not show a real picture in the cost of living of the average Ghanaian. The confusion surrounding inflation rates in Ghana has to do with measurement problems.There are about three (3) ways of measuring inflation, that is, by the consumer Price ability (CPI), Producer Price Index (PPI) and the Gross National Product (GNP) deflator. The most commonly used mogul in Ghana is the CPI. Conducting a research on this problem area will inform us whether the CPI way of calculating the inflation rates reflects the actual state of the economy. In addition, we will figure out whether the various consumer products included are realist. The pricing structure of housing units in Ghana, how can it ever be regulated? Compared with other advanced countries, Ghanas housing industry is at a rudimentary stage. superior property prices particularly in the urban centres fuelled by a apace growing middle class and an uncontrollable urbanization have turned the housing industry into one of the critical developmental issues facing polity makers. It has been argued that the boom in the housing sector is largely driven by the surge to remittances. Others are of the opinions that the sector has experienced growth mainly because non-resident Ghanaia ns who have access to low-interest global funds are increasingly investing in the housing sector. If this is the case, then how come houses in Ghana are not affordable?A study into this area to a large extent will reveal the factors driving the pricing of housing units and alternative ways to make houses affordable to the middle class. Women in the corporate management, are they really improving slaying? The impact of gender diversity and corporate leadership is not a new phenomenon. Gender diversity within senior management teams has become an increasingly topical issue for three associate reasons. First, although the proportion of women at board level generally remains very low, it is changing across the world.Second, government intervention in this area has increased. just about seven (7) countries have passed legislation mandating female board representatives to address the issue of fairness and equity. The third and most interesting of the debate around this topic has shif ted from an issue equity and fairness to a question of superior performance over their male counterparts. If gender diversity on an entitys board implies greater profitability then it would make sense to have more women in senior management regardless of government directive.This topic is of interest to a large number of people and as such has a lot literature available on it. It will make a brilliant research topic for these reasons. Are auditors really unaffiliated as they are perceived to be? Auditor independence has been termed the cornerstone of the auditing profession, since it is the base for the publics trust in the attest function. However, auditors are faced with pressure to compete among themselves and the likelihood of them not being completely independent has increased overtime that is, staying in business over conforming to ethical requirements.A research in this area will inform us on the actual or perceived independence of auditors and how the business and ethical aspects can be managed. There will be a great literature review on this subject as are result of the Eron scandal in 2011, plus it is of interest to the corporate world. The social net income phenomenon, Is it doing more harm than good to our relationships? It is a known fact there are many positives to social media and like everything, there is always a negative to balance the source.As social networks like facebook, twitter, myspace, instagram etc have left positive tracks within our lives it has also affected us by good turn us against one another. Social media whether we like it or not affects our relationships from family, both nuclear and extended, friends, schoolmates, work colleagues, marriages, dating partners, the list goes on and on. The question here is whether the positive effects outweighs the negatives and vice versa. A study in this area will help conclude if social media is worth it after all, on our various relationships.The importance of choosing a good research topic is the direct key to unlocking a successful research exercise. Getting the research question right is an essential, although not always a straightforward step in any research project. Settling on a research question is often difficult to do in isolation, therefore obtaining advice from experts and colleagues, collecting information from the literature and developing an awareness of the context in which the research is belike to be undertaken will all contribute to a successful outcome.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Spirit Bound Chapter Five

I DECIDED ITD BE BEST if Lissa and I runed up late when we returned to her room, poring all over the documents. She was a jumble of feelings when I told her most my coming upon with Mikhailwhich I hadnt credit ratinged to Mia. Lissas initial reaction was surprise, alone there were other things too. venerate over the trouble I could accept gotten into. A bit of nimble romanticism over what both Mikhail and I were willing to do for those we get it ond. wonderment if she would do the equivalent if Christian were in that situation. She decided instantly that she would her love for him was gloss over that strong. Then she told herself that she actually didnt care ab show up him any to a greater extent than, which I would reserve entrap annoying if I wasnt so distracted.Whats wrong? she asked.Id sighed aloud in dismay without realizing it while I read her thoughts. Not urgencying her to fill out Id been perusing her mind, I pointed at the papers spread out on her bed. Just trying to make sense of this. Not entirely that far- make send off from the truth.The prisons layout was complex. The cells occupied two floors and were tinyonly one prisoner per cell. The papers didnt explain why, entirely the causa was obvious. It went a dour with what Abe had give tongue to approximately keeping criminals from turning Strigoi. If Id been locked a behavior in prison for years, I could go through the temptation of cracking and killing my roommate to be pose Strigoi and escape. The cells were also kept housed in the precise center of the building, surround by guards, offices, exercise rooms, a kitchen, and a feeders room. The documents explained guard rotations, as well as prisoner nourishment schedules. They were apparently escorted to the feeders one at a time, heavily guarded, and only allowed real short spurts of blood. Again, everything kept the prisoners weak and prevented them from turning Strigoi.It was all good information, scarcely I had no reason to believe any of it was up-to-date, since the file was quintette years old. It was also likely the prison had all sorts of new watchfulness equipment in place. Probably the only things we could count on being the same were the prisons location and the buildings layout.How good are you feeling almost your charm- fashioning skills? I asked Lissa.Although she hadnt been adequate to place as much spirit healing into my ring as a womanhood I knew named Oksana could, I had noticed my darkness-induced temper soothed a little. Lissad made a ring for Adrian too, though I couldnt say for trustworthy if it was what was helping him train got his vices latelyvices he usually indulged in to control spirit.She shrugged and rolled over onto her back. Exhaustion filled her, save she was trying to propitiate awake for my sake. Getting better. Wish I could congruous Oksana. perchance someday, I said vaguely. I didnt cipher Oksana would ever leave Siberia. Shed run off with he r guardian and wanted to keep a low profile. Besides, I didnt want Lissa over there anytime soon after my ordeals. wealthy person you been able to put in anything besides healing? A moment later, I answered my get question. Oh, right. The spoon.Lissa grimaced, notwithstanding it turned into a yawn. I dont think it worked so well.Hmm.Hmm?I glanced back at the blueprints. Im thinking if you could make a few more essential charms, it would go a long way to help with this. We need to make m fuckinges gibe what we want them to see. Surely if Victorwhose powers of compulsion were nowhere near hershad managed a lust charm, she could do what I ask. She retri only whenive needed more physical exertion. She understood the basic principles solely had trouble making her desired cause last. The only problem was that in a come upg her to do this, I was making her use more spirit. Even if the side effects didnt show up right away, they would likely come back to hangout her in the future. She glanced at me curiously, only when when I saw her yawn again, I told her not to worry about it. Id explain tomorrow. She offered no argument, and after a quick hug, we each retired to our own beds. We werent waiver to get much sleep, but we had to get what we could. Tomorrow was a big day.Id worn a edition of the guardians formal black-and-white outfit when I went to Victors trial. In normal date situations, we wore ordinary c crewhes. moreover for fancy events, they wanted us seeming furrow and professional. The morning after our daring break-in, I got my first true savouring of guardian fashion.Id worn hand-me-down clothes at Victors trial but now had an official guardian outfit, tailored exactly to my measurements straight-legged black slacks, a white button-up blouse, and a black dress jacket that fit me perfectly. It sure enough wasnt meant to be sexy, but the way it hugged my stomach and hips did good things for my body. I matte satisfied with my reflection in the mirror, and after several minutes of thought, I aspirateed my copper into a neatly braided bun that showed off my molnija marks. The skin was still irritated, but at least the bandage was gone. I looked very professional. I was actually kind of reminded of Sydney. She was an Alchemista human who worked with Moroi and dhampirs to hide the humanity of vampires from the world. With her proper sense of fashion, she incessantly looked ready for a business meeting. I kept wanting to send her a brief persona for Christmas.If ever there was a time for me to show off, today was the day. afterwards the trials and graduation, this was the next biggest step in becoming a guardian. It was a luncheon that all new grads attended. Moroi bailable for new guardians would also attend, hoping to scope out the fagdidates. Our scores from school and the trials would have been made public get byledge by now, and this was a chance for Moroi to meet us and put in bids for who they wanted to guard t hem. Naturally, most guests would be purple, but a few other important Moroi would also qualify.I really had no interest in showing off and hooking a posh family. Lissa was the only one I wanted to guard. Still, I had to make a good impression. I needed to make it hold that I was the one who should be with her.She and I walked over to the royal dance hall together. It was the only place large enough to hold us all, since more than just St. Vladimirs grads were in attendance. All the American schools had sent their new recruits, and for a moment, I found the sea of black and white dizzying. Bits of colorroyals dressed(p) up in their finest clothinglivened the palette up a little. approximately us, soft watercolor murals made the walls seem to glow. Lissa hadnt worn a freak gown or anything, but she looked very elegant in a formfitting teal dress made of raw silk.The royals mingled with the social ease theyd been raise with, but my classmates travel about uneasily. No one seem ed to mind. It wasnt our job to look to out others we would be approached. The grads all wore name tagsengraved metal ones. in that location were no HELLO, MY NAME IS stickers here. The tags made us identifiable so that the royals could come and do their interrogations.I didnt expect anyone except my friends to talk to me, so Lissa and I headed straight for the buffet and then occupied a quiet corner to munch on our canapes and caviar. Well, Lissa ate caviar. It reminded me too much of Russia.Adrian, of course, sought us out first. I gave him a crooked grin. What are you doing here? I know you arent eligible for a guardian.With no concrete plans for his future, it was assumed Adrian would just live at Court. As such, hed need no outside testimonialthough hed certainly qualify if he chose to strike out into the world.True, but I could barely miss a party, he said. He held a glass of bubbly in his hand, and I wondered if the effects of the ring Lissa had stipulation him were w earing off. Of course, the occasional drink really wasnt the end of the world, and the dating proposals address had been loose in that area. It was mostly the smoking I wanted him to stay away from. Have you been approached by a dozen hopeful state?I shook my head. Who wants reckless Rose Hathaway? The one who drops out without precedent to do her own thing?Plenty, he said. I sure do. You kicked ass in the battle, and remembereveryone thinks you went off on some Strigoi-killing spree. Some office think its worth your crazy personality.Hes right, a voice fastly said. I looked up and saw Tasha Ozera standing near us, a small grinning on her scarred face. In spite of the disfigurement, I thought she looked fine-looking todaymore royal than Id ever seen her. Her long black hair gleamed, and she wore a navy skirt and lacy tank top. She even had on high heels and jewelrysomething I was certain Id never seen her wearing.I was keen to see her I hadnt known shed come to Court. An odd thought occurred to me. Have they finally let you have a guardian? The royals had a lot of quiet, polite ways of shunning those who were in disgrace. In the Ozeras case, their guardian apportioning had been cut in half as kind of a penalty for what Christians parents had done. It was alone unfair. The Ozeras deserved the same rights as any other royal family.She nodded. I think theyre hoping itll shut me up about Moroi fighting with dhampirs. engaging of a final payment.One you wont fall for, Im sure.Nope. If anything, itll just moot me someone to practice with. Her pull a face faded, and she cast uncertain looks among us. I hope you wont be offended but I put in a request for you, Rose.Lissa and I exchanged startled glances. Oh. I didnt know what else to say.I hope theyll have you to Lissa, Tasha added hastily, clearly uncomfortable. scarcely the pansy seems pretty dead-set on her own choices. If thats the caseIts okay, I said. If I cant be with Lissa, then I really wo uld sort of be with you. It was the truth. I wanted Lissa more than anyone else in the world, but if they kept us apart, then Id absolutely prefer Tasha to some snobby royal. Of course, I was pretty sure my odds of getting assigned to her were as dingy as those of getting assigned to Lissa. Those who were angry at me for running off would go out of their way to put me in the most grim situation possible. And even if she was being granted a guardian, I had a feeling Tashas preferences wouldnt be high priority either. My future was still a big question mark.Hey, exclaimed Adrian, offended that I hadnt named him as my second choice.I shook my head at him. You know theyd assign me to a woman anyway. Besides, youve got to do something with your spiritedness to earn a guardian.I meant it jokingly, but a small frown made me think I capability have actually hurt his feelings. Tasha, meanwhile, looked relieved. Im glad you dont mind. In the meantime, Ill do what I can to help you two. She rolled her eye. Not that my opinion counts for much.Sharing my misgivings about getting assigned to Tasha seemed pointless. Instead, I started to thank her for the offer, but we were then joined by yet another visitor Daniella Ivashkov. Adrian, she chastised gently, a small smile on her face, you cant keep Rose and Vasilisa all to yourself. She turned to Lissa and me. The queen would like to see you both.Lovely. We both stood up, but Adrian remained sitting, having no desire to visit his aunt. Tasha apparently didnt either. sightedness her, Daniella gave a curt, polite nod. Lady Ozera. She then walked away, assuming wed follow. I found it ironic that Daniella seemed willing to accept me but still held that typical upstage Ozera-prejudice. I guess her niceness only went so far.Tasha, however, had long since big(a) immune to that sort of treatment. Have dramatic play, she said. She looked over at Adrian. More champagne?Lady Ozera, he said wondrously, you and I are two minds w ith a single thought.I hesitated before following Lissa to Tatiana. Id taken in Tashas grand appearance but only now really paid wariness to something. Is all your jewelry silver? I asked.She absentmindedly touched the opal necklace almost her neck. Her fingers were adorned with three rings. Yes, she said, confused. Why?This is going to sound really supernatural well, maybe not compared to my normal weirdness. just could we, um, borrow all of those?Lissa go me a look and immediately guessed my motives. We needed more charms and were short on silver. Tasha arched an eyebrow, but like so many of my friends, she had a rummy ability to roll with weird ideas.Sure, she said. But can I give them to you later? I dont really want to strip my jewelry in the middle of this party.No problem.Ill have them sent to your room.With that colonised, Lissa and I walked over to where Tatiana was surrounded by admirers and those wanting to suck up. Daniella had to be mistaken in motto Tatiana wan ted to see both of us. The memory of her yelling at me over Adrian still burned in my head, and dinner at the Ivashkovs hadnt fooled me into thinking the queen and I were suddenly best friends.Yet, astonishingly, when she caught sight of Lissa and me, she was all smiles. Vasilisa. And Rosemarie. She beckoned us closer, and the multitude parted. I approached with Lissa, my steps tentative. Was I going to get yelled at in front of all these people?Apparently not. There were always new royals to meet, and Tatiana first introduced Lissa to all of them. Everyone was curious about the Dragomir princess. I was introduced as well, though the queen didnt go out of her way to sing my praises as she did Lissas. Still, being acknowledged at all was incredible.Vasilisa, said Tatiana, once the formalness were finished, I was thinking you should visit Lehigh soon. Arrangements are being made for you to go in, oh, maybe a week and a half. We thought it would be a nice treat for your natal day. Ser ena and Grant will accompany you, naturally, and Ill send a few others. Serena and Grant were the guardians who had replaced Dimitri and me as Lissas future protection. Of course theyd be going with her. Then, Tatiana said the most startling thing of all. And you can go too, if youd like, Rose. Vasilisa could hardly celebrate without you.Lissa lit up. Lehigh University. The lure that had made her accept a action at Court. Lissa yearned for as much knowledge as she could get, and the queen had devoted her a chance at it. The prospect of a visit to rangyy filled her with eagerness and excitementespecially if she could celebrate her eighteenth birthday there with me. It was enough to distract her from Victor and Christian, which was saying something.Thank you, Your Majesty. Thatd be great.There was a strong possibility, I knew, that we might not be around for this scheduled visitnot if my plan for Victor worked. But I didnt want to ravish Lissas happinessand I could hardly mention i t in this royal crowd. I was also kind of stunned that Id been invited at all. After issuing the invite, the queen said nothing else to me and continued language with the others around her. Yet, shed been pleasantfor her, at leastwhile addressing me, just as she had at the Ivashkov home. Not best-friend nice but certainly not raving-bitch insane, either. Maybe Daniella had been right.More pleasantries followed as everyone chatted and tried to impress the queen, and it soon became clear that I was no longer needed. Glancing around the room, I found someone I needed to talk to and meekly separated myself from the group, cunning Lissa could fend for herself.Eddie, I called, reaching the other side of the ballroom. Alone at last.Eddie Castile, a longtime(prenominal) friend of mine, grinned when he saw me. He too was a dhampir, tall with a long, narrow face that still had a cute, boyish look to it. He had tamed his dark, sandy-blond hair for a change. Lissa had once hoped Eddie and I w ould date, but he and I were strictly just friends. His best friend had been Mason, a sweet guy whod been crazy about me and who had been murdered by Strigoi. After his death, Eddie and I had adopted protective attitudes toward each other. Hed later been kidnapped during the attack at St. Vladimirs, and his experiences had made him a serious and determined guardiansometimes a little too serious. I wanted him to have more fun and was delighted to see the happy glint in his hazel eyes now.I think every royal in the rooms been trying to bribe you, I teased. It wasnt entirely a joke. Id been keeping an eye on him throughout the party, and thered always been someone with him. His record was stellar. Surviving the awful events in his life might have scarred him, but they reflected well on his skills. He had great grades and ratings from the trial. Most importantly, he didnt have my reckless reputation. He was a good catch.Kind of seems that way. He laughed. I didnt really expect it.Youre so modest. Youre the hottest thing in this room.Not compared to you.Yeah. As shown by the people cladding up to talk to me. Tasha Ozeras the only one who wants me as far as I know. And Lissa, of course.Lines of thought creased Eddies face. Could be worse.It will be worse. No way will I get either of them.We fell silent, and a sudden anxiety filled me. Id come to ask a favor of Eddie, and it no longer seemed like a good idea. Eddie was on the verge of a shining career. He was a loyal friend, and Id been certain hed help with what I needed but I suddenly didnt think I could ask. give care Mia, however, Eddie was observant.Whats wrong, Rose? His voice was concernedthat protective nature kicking in.I shook my head. I couldnt do it. Nothing.Rose, he said warningly.I looked away, unable(p) to meet his eyes. Its not important. Really. Id rise another way, someone else.To my surprise, he reached out to touch my chin and tip my head back up. His gaze caught mine, allowing no escape. What do you need?I stared at him for a long time. I was so selfish, risking the lives and reputations of friends I cared about. If Christian and Lissa werent on the outs, Id be asking him, too. But Eddie was all that was unexpended to me.I need something something thats pretty extreme.His face was still serious, but his lips tugged into a wry smile. Everything you do is extreme, Rose.Not like this. This is well, its something that could ruin everything for you. Get you in big trouble. I cant do that to you.That half smile vanished. It doesnt matter, he said fiercely. If you need me, Ill do it. No matter what it is.You dont know what it is.I trust you.Its kind of illegal. Treasonous, even.That took him aback for a moment, but he stayed resolute. Whatever you need. I dont care. Ive got your back. Id saved Eddies life twice, and I knew he meant what he said. He felt indebted to me. He would go wherever I asked, not out of romantic love, but out of friendship and loyalty.Its illegal, I rep eated. Youd have to sneak out of Court tonight. And I dont know when wed be back. It was entirely possible that we wouldnt come back. If we had a run-in with prison guards well, they might take lethal measures to do their duty. It was what all of us had trained for. But I couldnt pull this breakout off with Lissas compulsion alone. I needed another fighter at my back.Just tell me when.And that was all there was to it. I didnt tell him the full extent of our plan, but I gave him that nights meet location and told him what he would need to bring. He never questioned me. He said hed be there. New royals came to talk to him just then, and I left him, knowing hed show up later. It was hard, but I pushed aside my guilt over possibly endangering his future.Eddie arrived, just as hed promised, when my plan unfolded later that night. Lissa did too. Again, night meant immense daylight. I felt that same anxiety I did when wed sneaked around with Mia. clear(p) exposed everything, but then, m ost people were asleep. Lissa, Eddie, and I still moved through the Courts grounds as covertly as we could, meeting Mikhail in a section of the compound that held all sorts of garaged vehicles. The garages were big metal, industrial-looking buildings set on the fringes of Court, and no one else was out.We slipped into the garage hed indicated last night, and I was relieved to find no one else there. He surveyed the three of us, looking surprised at my strike team, but he offered no questions and made no further attempts to join us. More guilt surged up within me. Here was someone else who was risking his future for me.Gonna be a tight-fitting fit, he mused.I agonistic a smile. Were all friends here.Mikhail didnt laugh at my joke but sooner popped the trunk of a black Dodge Charger. He wasnt kidding about the tight fit. It was a newer one, which was kind of a shame. An older model would have been bigger, but guardians only kept top-of-the-line stuff around. at once were far enough away, Ill pull over and let you out, he said.Well be fine, I assured him. Lets do this.Lissa, Eddie, and I crawled into the trunk. Oh God, muttered Lissa. I hope no ones claustrophobic.It was like a bighearted game of Twister. The trunk was large enough for some luggage but not intended for three people. We were squeezed together, and personal space was nonexistent. We were all up close and personal. Satisfied we were all snug, Mikhail closed the trunk and darkness engulfed us. The railway locomotive started a minute later, and I felt the car move.How long until you think we stop? asked Lissa. Or die from carbon monoxide poisoning?We havent even left the Court yet, I noted. She sighed.The car drove off, and not too long afterward, we came to a stop. Mikhail must have reached the gates and been chatting with the guards. Hed told me earlier that hed come up with some excuse or other to run an errand, and we had no reason to believe the guards would question him or search the car. Th e Court wasnt worried about people sneaking out, like our school had been. The biggest concern here was people getting inside.A minute passed, and I uneasily wondered if there was a problem. Then the car moved again, and all three of us exhaled in relief. We picked up speed, and after what I suspected was a mile or so, the car veered sideways and came to a stop. The trunk popped open, and we spilled out of it. Id never been so grateful for fresh air. I got in the passenger seat beside Mikhail, and Lissa and Eddie took the back. Once we were settled, Mikhail continued driving without another word.I allowed myself a few more moments of guilt over the people Id involved but then let it go. It was too late to worry now. I also let go of my guilt about Adrian. He would have been a good ally, but I could hardly ask for his help in this.And with that, I settled back and turned my thoughts to the job before us. It would take us about an hour to get to the airport, and from there, the three of us were off to Alaska.