Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Attention Users Ã¢â¬â Why Submit A Paper to FORP Free Online Research Papers As you have figured out by now FORP does not charge for complete access to all the great essays and papers that users have contributed. To charge people would be a backwards step in regards to our feelings about how information should be distributed. Other sites require that users MUST contribute work in order to have access. We are not that excited about this idea either, however, because contributions are so low that we may be forced to try new things. I should take this time to thank the members who have contributed to make FORP what it now is but in order to continue to grow we are needing support from new people. So contribute some papers to help make FORP better if you have not yet done so. Dont be lazy!! For questions about how to post please drop us feedback and we will get back with you as soon as possible. Thanks! Admin Research Papers on Attention Users - Why Submit A Paper to FORPThe Project Managment Office SystemQuebec and CanadaDefinition of Export QuotasStandardized TestingLifes What IfsThe Hockey GameAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2The Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseHip-Hop is ArtGenetic Engineering
Sunday, November 24, 2019
10 Roommate Gift Ideas That Wont Blow Your Budget Even though you sometimes know more about your roommate than anyone else on campus, finding the perfect gift can still be challenging. Fortunately, with a little creative thinking, you can get your male or female roommate the perfect holiday, birthday, or farewell gift without blowing your budget. Something OnlyYou Know They Need You may see your roommate struggling with something that has been well-loved for a little too long. It could be a new hair dryer, a new towel set, a new shower caddy, or generally anything they use frequently. Something of Yours That They're Always Borrowing Your rain boots, favorite shirt, jeans, cute black pumps, or basketball may technically be yours, but seem to have been adopted by your roommate lately. Give them a new, similar product of their own so they can enjoy it without worrying- and without having to check with you first. A Gift Certificate to Their Favorite Restaurant On or Off Campus Does your roommate always walk around with a Starbucks coffee, Jamba Juice smoothie, or burger from the place across the street? Consider getting a small gift certificate to a place you know they already love. A Gift From the Campus Bookstore Because honestly, who minds having another t-shirt, sweatshirt, or pair of comfy pants with your school logo on them? A Small Gift Every Day of Their BirthdayWeek This is a great option if youre a little short on cash. You can surprise your roommate with something fun every day of their birthday week: their favorite candy bar placed on their computer keyboard one day, a box of their favorite cereal the next. A New Laptop Bag/Backpack/Gym Bag/Purse/etc College students are notoriously rough on their bags. And, given that you share living quarters, youve probably seen the worst of the worst when it comes to how your roommate treats their backpack, gym bag, etc. Consider getting them a replacement or even just an extra one for when things get really ugly. Some of Their Favorite Personal Products Does your roommate have a favorite perfume? Cologne? Brand of flip-flops theyre always wearing? Grab an extra one, throw it in a gift bag, and ... voila! Instant personal roommate gift. A Book by Their Favorite Author or on Their Favorite Topic Chances are, your roommate has some passions and interests that they dont get the chance to read about just for pleasure. Surprise them with something theyll enjoy without having to worry about writing a paper on later. A Simple Electronic Device to Make Life Easier You can never have too many thumb drives, phone chargers, or earphones. These inexpensive electronics make for great, inexpensive gifts. A Gift Certificate to Their Favorite Website Does your roommate love iTunes? An online game? Consider getting them a gift certificate that they can use electronically. Added bonus: These make great last-minute gifts since theyre often delivered instantly.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Starting and Developing a New Venture. Nature of Entrepreneurship - Essay Example Improving further the existing ideas using creativity and innovation seems to be the most appropriate way of coming up with such ventures. In spite of this, some entrepreneurs still find opportunities around them, which they develop as new ideas. A new venture does not necessarily have to mean a new business altogether. It could be a new idea in a big companyÃ¢â¬â¢s department, or a new product developed by an existing company. Improving on an existing product still encompasses entrepreneurial skills and innovation. However, starting a small business entity requires patience and strong entrepreneurial skills. The development of an idea to a big venture requires patience and courage. Big and established businesses in the same industry will try to push the new entrepreneur out of the business through packaging and price battles. Additionally, the giants will try to prove of experience in the industry which they already have their customers. To win customer confidence, the entrepreneu r should ensure quality in their products and competitive pricing. Waging such a tough war requires commitment and dedication by the entrepreneurs. In exploring this topic of starting and developing a new venture, this paper will look at the entrepreneurial skills and careers of two of the worldsÃ¢â¬â¢ most successful entrepreneurs, Stelios Haji-Ioannou of Easyjet and Richard Branson of Virgin. Many scholars have written about entrepreneurship. According to oxford English dictionary an entrepreneur is a person who attempts to make profit by taking risk through an initiative. Richard Cantillon is credited to be the originator of the word Ã¢â¬Å"entrepreneurÃ¢â¬ in the year 1755 in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Essai sur la nature du commerce en general.Ã¢â¬ Stokes & Wilson (2010, p. 1) believes that entrepreneurship is more than just the business of making money. According to Sjovoll & Skogen (2010, p. 8), the creativity and innovation exhibited by the members of a society and at family le vel are forms of entrepreneurship. Hardly do these talents get noticed however, until an idea is put into action. A visible entrepreneurial idea is called a venture. The different skills and attributes portrayed by a person makes them entrepreneurs, while the ability of a person to see an opportunity where other people cannot see one defines the personÃ¢â¬â¢s entrepreneurial skills (Sarasvathy 2004, p. 521). There exists a distinction between entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship, which is a rather new term in the corporate world. While entrepreneurship defines both the act and the art of undertaking innovations that include introducing new things especially in the business acumen, Intrapreneurship is the act and art of entrepreneurship in large organizations. Employees who undertake to develop their organizations through creative ideas such as product development are referred to as intrapreneurs. Nature of Entrepreneurship A lot of arguments have been raised regarding the nature of entrepreneurship. While some experts believe that great entrepreneurs are born, others believe that the best entrepreneurs are trained (Pittaway & Cope 2007, p. 212). However, the argument of whether entrepreneurial skills are an inborn talent or are a learned and acquired through the process of experience and education, different accounts of the careers of successful entrepreneurs provides answers to this. According to scholars though, the best entrepreneurs are trained. Greene & Mole (2007,Ã p. 14-20) strongly believes supports this. According to them, entrepreneurship as a process does not end in a personÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Child Abuse Laws - Essay Example Statistics on child abuse in the UK are very alarming. In a period of one year between 2012 April and March 2013, the police recorded 23000 sexual offences against children. On average, at least one child is killed every week in the hands of an adult through physical abuse in the UK. In 2012, the police forces in England and Wales reported about 28000 cases of children running away from care as a result of constant abuse while the Sex Offenders Register for sexual offences against children recorded 2980 cases. Another shocking statistic is that about 34% of cases of child abuse are left unreported to authorities. This makes it difficult to tackle this problem.In order to adequately protect children from abuse, it is necessary to understand the factors that cause or threaten to cause abuse among children. There are various causes of child abuse. Studies show that children from violent parents who are constantly engaged in domestic violence are also likely to experience abuse from the parents. Children who get unintended pregnancies are also likely to experience abuse and neglect from their parents (Balliere & Tindall, 2003). In other cases, children with severe or moderate disabilities often have a higher rate of falling victims to abuse. Parents with a history of substance abuse are also likely to subject their children to abuse. Recent studies also indicate that children in the custody of non-biological parents, for instance those living with step parents, are 100 times more likely to face abuse. Child abuse has a wide range of effects on the children, some of which may be long term and may persist in to the adult life of the children. A recent research study dubbed Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse, makes the case that child abuse also has greater effects on the wider societies economic prospects. The report states that child abuse forms a greater part of expensive and costly public health policy which can be avoided with appropriate child protection legal frameworks. Some of the effects of child abuse on children include both physical and psychological effects. Child victims of abuse are exposed to a lot of physical injuries including bone fractures and may develop higher chances of contracting cancer. In some cases these physical damages may be temporary while in other cases they may persist in the long term. Among some of the permanent or long term physical infections on children as a result of abuse include brain impairments, shaken b aby syndrome, and poor physical health. Psychological effect
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Business Strategy - Essay Example This will range from an individual to an organisation. A contractor of a construction project can subcontract the electricity wiring to the subcontractor. Recommendation as a subcontractor or main contractor The amount of resources available would determine whether a company or an individual can be the main contractor or the subcontractor. The private family owned company would be better off operating as a sub contractor rather than a main contractor or even carrying out both the activities of the main contractor and the subcontractor. The operations of the company as evidenced by the financial statements indicate large amounts of sum that has been used to transact the liabilities. As much as the liabilities still run lower than the assets, the margin is very small and would not guarantee that the company will not incur losses soon. A company would consider being a main contractor or a subcontractor depending on the balance between the assets and liabilities. This financial statement is important to determine the profitability and the liquidity of the company. A subcontractor may decide to operate so not only because of the limit of resources but because the subcontractor is more specialised in a given section of the contract than the main contractor. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to become a main or subcontractor should be based on the health and safety of the employees and workers of the organisation which would have been provided to give a judgement that is based on all the factors that affect the operation of the compan
Friday, November 15, 2019
George Eastman Inventor Of Kodak Camera Film Studies Essay Over the years photography has helped us share memories and moments with the people we love. Photography sets a mood and gives us a way of remembering our pasts. There is always that one question though. Where did it come from? Reading on will help you understand who, where, and when this invention all began. The word photography comes from the Greek language. The two words, photo, meaning light, and grapho, meaning writing, evolved its name, photography. Writing with light interested Greek and Chinese scholars to start experimenting with light. Using reflections from different objects, they can produce images. It took hundreds of years for anyone to figure this out which made the discovery more exciting. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 6-8) Giovanni Battista del la Porta presented the first image in front of an Italian audience. The people were amazed to see how the upside-down picture flipped and came alive on the wall. The audience didnt know about the pinhole in the wall where projected light was passing through. This is called Camera Obscura. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 8-10) Cameras started off being a big, heavy, wooden box. Arab scientist studied the sun using a camera obscura. Camera obscura means dark box or dark room in Latin, using sunlight which entered a hole in the box and displayed an image on the screen. By the 16th century, the hole became lens. (Franklin Watts, pg. 7-9, Tolmachev, Ivan.) Many artists started coming up with their own ways of using Camera Obscura including Johann Schulze who later helped the journey of photography. In 1760, a frenchman named Tiphaigne de la Roche made history with his famous prediction. He proposed using a sticky substance on the canvas would help with the images appearance. De la Roches prediction came true a few decades after his death. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 10-11) In the 19th century, pictures could be kept by using a sheet of material inside the box. This allowed people to see places they may never visit. They could see how other countries dressed, how the rich and poor lived, and for the first time, how war was. With Daguerres new invention, the Daguerreotype photography was created. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 9-12) This reduced light exposure time from eight hours to just a half hour. The daguerreotype was made famous and was bought over by the French government within a few months. Daguerres instruction manual was translated into a dozen languages all over the world. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 13) Scientists then started putting together light and chemicals knowing this could become something big known as the birth of photography. Thomas Wedgwood was the first to capture a silhouette temporarily using a chemical called silver nitrate. No one knew how to keep it permanent until 1826 when Nicephore Niepce successfully produced a permanent image. He la ter became partners with Louis Daguerre who continued experimenting even after his death. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 12, Wikipedia.) Scientists started putting light and chemicals together knowing this could become something big known as the birth of photography. Thomas Wedgwood was the first to capture a silhouette temporarily using a chemical called silver nitrate. No one knew how to keep it permanent until 1826 when NicÃ ©phore NiÃ ©pce successfully produced a permanent image. He later became partners with Louis Daguerre who continued experimenting even after his death. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 12) Americans were very excited about the Daguerreotype. Daguerre and Samuel Morse, a painter inventor, exchanged ideas about the Daguerreotype giving the U.S. an advantage on photography. Morse and his partner, John Draper, came up with their own version two months before the actual release. The Daguerreotype became very popular but had limitations such as its small size, weight of the metal, they were very fragile as to any marking could ruin the image, and there was no negative to make copies of any kind. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 1618) In 1843, an entire photo industry developed in the United States. People were now able to afford their own portraits no matter how wealthy they were. Portrait studios and big-city galleries opened all over the United States and newspapers started being printed with pictures. Publishers began printing books with pictures of the world and magazines started publishing with images of farms, churches, people, and nature. By 1851, pictures only needed two to th ree seconds of exposure time and grew even more. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 18-19) George Eastman, inventor of Kodak camera, made photography available to everyone. He was born in New York on July 12th, 1854 during the Daguerreotypes appearance. Eastmans interest in photography developed while planning a vacation to take pictures. He never did go, but continued his liking towards photography. This is when he created his own process that could take multiple pictures. In 1880, he opened his own business called the Eastman Company. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 22-23) Eastmans goal was to make the camera as convenient as a pencil. His first accomplishment was loading photographic paper onto a roll holder allowing people to take pictures and develop later instead of one after another. In 1885, Eastman created film that had the ability to hold multiple pictures. This film fit dozens of photos and provided a clearer image than paper would. Surprisingly, only a few people used his new invention. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 24) Eastman was particularly fond of the letter K. Therefore, he created a name that both started and ended with the letter. The first Kodak products were advertised in newspapers and magazines written by himself. In 1888, he created Kodaks slogan, You press the button, and we do the rest. Kodak was a big step in the continuation of photography and eliminated the hassle of big photography equipment. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 26-27) When film is struck by light, its coating of chemicals changes, known as the emulsion. Color film has three light sensitive layers, each sensitive to either red, green, or blue. When the film is treated with chemicals, three colors each form on top of each other. The paper inside is also treated with chemicals which finishes the final print. (Franklin Watts, pg. 18) Eastman believed that photo taking should be available to all people no matter what you could afford. By 1896, the Eastman Company had produced 100,000 Kodak cameras and manufactured about 400 miles of film per month. Kodak cameras cost five dollars but Eastman wasnt satisfied so he reduced it to only one dollar. In 1900, he created a small camera called the Brownie. By doing all of this, he gave the world the ability to take pictures by doing nothing more than pressing a button. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 27, Wikipedia.) The word photography comes from the two Greek words, phos and graphos. This means to write with light. Good lighting is very important for great quality. By combining certain lights, photographers can create certain moods or atmospheres. Professionals use an instant camera to check if everything is perfect before using normal film. (Franklin Watts, pg. 24) Film now has to be sent to a processing laboratory to be developed. An instant camera can use a special type of film that develops by itself. Each picture slides out as soon as its taken. It is fully developed within a minute. As it leaves the camera, it is coated with photographic chemicals. (Franklin Watts, pg. 20) In order for the picture to be perfect, there must be the correct amount of light. There are two ways of adjusting it. Changing the shutter speed varies the length of time the shutter is open. Changing the aperture alters the size of the hole that allows light in. Most cameras nowadays can do that automatically. (Frank lin Watts, pg. 16) Having a picture taken in a professional studio was a special moment for people. Therefore, they wore their best clothes in order to look good. In Victorian pictures, people often look stiff. This was because of the duration of the picture capture which made it difficult to look relaxed. It was also hard to smile for a long time so they often had a blank expression. Victorian photos often had a brown tint called sepia made from the liquid squirted out by a cuttlefish. (Franklin Watts, pg.1214) When filming a scene, a tape machine and a camera are started. A clapstick is snapped in front of the camera and Action! is yelled by the director. Later, the sound is put into each scene. This makes sure that each picture is exact with each sound. The lighting, sound, camera, and equipment are all put together by a filming crew. (Franklin Watts, pg. 31) The scenes are then joined together with a splicing machine. Some scenes might not even be used at all. Some movies put in the Deleted Scenes to show you how the movie could have been different. (Franklin Watts, pg. 32) Photography then started merging into the computer age. This major change in the United States had amazed many throughout the 1990s. The major movie Snow White was restored in 1993 using digital codes. Computers transferred microscopic pixels and displayed the image on the screen. Nowadays, we have the capability to add artistic effects, textures, and designs to a picture within seconds. Photos can be sent through the internet in color around the world. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 30) Photography is used to see things that are not able to be seen. Cameras are carried by spy planes and satellites to take pictures from the sky. X-rays produce images of people and objects on the inside. The camera can get through muscle and skin but not bone. These pictures allow doctors to see problems occurring not seen from the outside. (Franklin Watts, pg. 26) In the 1830s, people created toys that made a series of pictures on a spinning disc. Each picture looked a little different than before. When shown quickly, they create a moving picture. Photographs were then placed on long strips of film. This became known as the cinema industry. (Franklin Watts, pg. 28) By the middle of the 20th century, the camera became a common item with multiple uses. People everywhere were now taking portraits of whatever they pleased at such little cost. Scientists came up with the idea of x-rays creating a huge breakthrough in medicine. Thomas Edison came out with the motion picture camera for news coverage and entertainment. The creation of microfilm allowed banks and libraries to copy and store info. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 28) Newspapers and television newsrooms now receive pictures within a few seconds after they are taken. Hospitals can send medical images to other hospitals when needed. Many people create online photo albums and share them with others. Many social networks have the ability to post pictures such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and others. Cell phones now have the ability to take pictures and send them to friends. The photographic world changes rapidly all starting off with a reflection on a wall. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 28, Sullivan, Connor R.) Inventions such as home movie cameras, photocopiers, underwater cameras and space cameras all developed during the 20th century. In 1962, John Glenn was first to orbit the earth using a special camera to film the whole journey. In 1969, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong used another camera to film the first step on the moon. Photographs of the moon were brought back studied. These pictures amazed many as it was the first time theyve seen what they have been curious about for centuries. (Sue Vander Hook, pg. 28-29) A camera has many parts to it. The hole in the front with the lens called the aperture allows light to pass through and fall onto the film inside. When the camera isnt in use, a shutter keeps the film in total darkness. By pressing the button, the shutter opens and light enters the lens producing a clear image on the film. The shutter is closed again and is wound on, ready for the next photograph. (Franklin Watts, pg. 14) There are several different cameras. The most popular are compact cameras and the single lens reflex (SLR) cameras. A compact camera can fit easily into your pocket while a SLR camera gives more control over the shutter speed, aperture, and focus. The SLR uses multiple types of lenses. Also, the disposable camera which is used once, developed, and then thrown away. (Franklin Watts, pg. 22) Special effects help set a mood for the audience. Some create places that dont exist or events that never happened even though they appear real when on the screen. Tiny models can be made to look as if they were huge in real life. Even dinosaurs and monsters are brought to life on the cinema screen. (Franklin Watts, pg. 36) Animated films also bring things to life. Events that can barely be seen can be slowed or stopped. The secret is the time reveal between photographs. Speeding up the camera makes things appear in slow motion while the film is being shown while slowing it down speeds it up. With animated characters, the actors voice can be made to match the characters face. This is all possible through photographic evolution. (Franklin Watts, pg. 35) The camera has influenced many by capturing a life and putting it onto paper. It makes sure those special moments dont go to waste and can be relived. Photography has influenced me not just because of my love for editing and taking pictures, but also for the feelings and emotions it can bring to a persons face. Photography doesnt just forever hold memories on a strip of film, but gives you your life in review at the click of a button.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
In 1979 led by Deng Xioping The PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China, located in South East Asia, implanted what is called ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s one child policy or (as referred to by the Chinese government) the family planning policy. This policy restricts married, urban couples to bearing only one child and 35. 9% of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is subject to these restrictions, mainly those in urban areas as couples living in rural areas are allowed to have two children, especially if the first child is female or disable, as well as this ethnic minorities are exempt from the policy. However today 90% of all urban children and over 60% of rural children are growing up without any siblings. During Mao ZedongÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, the policy in China was Ã¢â¬Å"the more people, the stronger we areÃ¢â¬ which led to extreme over population (a population verging on 1 billion during 1979/1980) and famines. However when Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, his policies concentrated on strengthening the Chinese economy and he saw ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s overpopulation as a obstruction in the way of economic development. As well as this the policy hoped to alleviate social and environmental problems (such as stretched resources in certain regions) within the country, however the primary objective of the policy was to decelerate the rate of population growth. The initial goal of the policy was to limit ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s population to 1. 2 billion people by the year 2000. Enforcing the Policy Many of the prevailing criticisms of the One-Child Policy is that it is an abuse of Human rights, and many oppose the core principle of the policy, claiming a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On a provincial and regional level, government agents police the situation, enforcing the regulations. Theoretically speaking, the policy is voluntary, but the government impose punishments and heavy fines on those who do not follow the rules. Parents with extra children can be fined from $370 to $12,800 depending on the region and if this fine goes unpaid, even stricter rules have been enforced in some cases, such as the removal of land, loss of jobs, destruction of homes and not allowing a child to attend school. In one extreme case, a woman in the 1980s pregnant with a second child, was fired from, had a forced abortion, and was then sent to a psychiatric hospital, and was still in a labour camp in the early 2000s. Although this seems extreme, it should be assumed that since this incident, which occurred in the early stages of the policy, most of this behaviour has died out now. However similar, though less brutal cases have been noted. As although the policy is supposed to involve eugenic testing which is policed and enforced through a system of economic disincentives and fines, there have been numerous reports of forced abortion, forced sterilization and infanticide, even in the last decade, for example it was reported that in 2001 an annual quota of 20,000 forced sterilizations and forced abortions were set for Huaiji in the Gundang Province for those who did not adhere to the policy of one child only. However, China banned the use of physical force to for abortions or sterilizations in 2002, but it seems even official law cannot stop the brutalities, as there have been continuing reports of violence against women pregnant with a second or third child. However itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just the women who are in danger, if families hide from officials, their relatives were thrown into jail until the white flag was shown; even women with permission for a second child have been subject to violence. In some places the enforcement has been so harsh that the FPA (Family Planning Association) had to give out brochures that detailed the Ã¢â¬Å"seven donÃ¢â¬â¢tsÃ¢â¬ of the policy, which included things such as not beating up people who have unplanned births and donÃ¢â¬â¢t burn down their houses. Despite these horrific stories, the enforcement of the policy does vary greatly from place to place, so these stories cannot be generalised to the whole of China. Some provinces contain families with four or five children and can get away with it because the policy is either ignored or the fines can be easily paid. Propaganda: These are just a couple of the examples of hundreds of uses of propaganda used in China to help enforce the one child policy. The first one uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"himÃ¢â¬ which suggests that as well as advocating the one-child policy, some of the propaganda advocates a son instead of a daughter. Although these are examples of the tamer slogans and statues, there have been ones which bring across a much harsher message; Slogans painted on walls by the roadside have been both terrifying and unsubtle, such as Ã¢â¬ËKill all your family members if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the rule! and Ã¢â¬ËWe would rather scrape your womb than allow you to have a second childÃ¢â¬â¢. However the FPC is now saying that a shift is needed in the tone of this propaganda, more towards the oneÃ¢â¬â¢s shown above. Instead of intimidation, persuasion and encouragement are the new tactics to be adopted, so as to avoid offending the public and causing violence. Impacts of the Policy: This policy was set out to reduce the social, economic and environmental problems that plagued China in the 1970s/80s however has the policy actually performed as well as predicted? When the policy was first introduced, a 1. 2 billion target population was set for the year 2000, however in this year the population was at 1. 27 billion and even this was regarded as an underestimation. The Chinese authorities claim that the policy has prevented over 400 million births since it was introduced over 30 years ago; this is also shown through the declining fertility rate, which has fallen from 2. 9% to around 1. % (recent figures show). However despite this drop, it is difficult to ignore the parallels China has with many other countries around the world that have also experienced significant drops in fertility rates, which leads to speculation around whether the policy is the reason for the decline, or that the government policy that encouraged later marriages and longer intervals between birth and further children had more of an impact. This argument is indeed plausible, as the fertility rate in China dropped from 5% to just below 2% even before the one child policy was introduced and as the graph above shows, the steepest decline was before 1979. Skewed age demographic: Although there is speculation about the cause of fertility rates, a large impact of the one child policy has been a rapid increase in the ageing population of China, it is expected that the population will become disproportionally older well into this century. Today 10% of the urban population is already aged 65 and over, and this is thought to rise to over 15% in a decade, 20% by 2025 and 35% in 2050 if the fertility rates remain consistent. But how prepared is China to cope with such a rapidly ageing population? Before the decline of fertility, the elderly relied nearly exclusively on their children for support, however now the elderly in China will face a lack of young carers. At the time the one-child policy was introduced, the economy at the time still provided support in the way of communes in the countryside and organizations in urban areas. However now that ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has changed and developed this societal support has all but disappeared. This lack of support, coupled with the one-child policy means that extra social and financial pressure on a single child to support their grandparents and their parents. This is known as the 4:2:1 phenomenon, where the 4 represents the grandparents, the two represents the parents, and the one represents the child; this shows that increasing numbers of couples will end up with the sole responsibility of care for their child and their parents. Despite this, the government does offer $6 to poor rural elderly with one child, although it can hardly be considered much help or a substitute for the support of more children. As well as this, over 60s have been reassured of extra provisions they may be able to receive, however many questions have been raised as to exactly how these new allowances will be funded. The imbalanced sex ratio: In 1982, the sex ratio was at 108. 5 boys to every 100 girls, which is already above the normal range, but in 2011 it had reached to 117. boys to every 100 girls and these ratios are not just confined to rural China. The policy has contributed to the sex ratio imbalance in several ways. Some couples who have not yet had a son resort to sex-selective abortions after ultrasound in order to have a child of the preferred gender. Despite the fact this is thought to account for a large proportion of the decline in female births, actual figures are difficult to calculate, as this kind of abortion is ille gal, although itÃ¢â¬â¢s known to be very widely carried out. At the same time as this, some females are uncounted, missing or have Ã¢â¬ËdisappearedÃ¢â¬â¢ as they are hidden from the government officials, or not officially registered at birth and this allows for couples to have a second child in an attempt to have a boy instead. Another explanation for the skewed ratio is the potential of infanticide, abandonment or deliberate neglect of baby girls. Although female mortality rates had been declining since 1930, by 2000 this had reserved and excess female mortality has risen since the implementation of the one-child policy. This can be seen to be one of the failures of the olicy and the potentially disastrous social consequences of this Ã¢â¬Ëfemale shortageÃ¢â¬â¢ have been acknowledged. This shortage is thought to have increased male mental health problems as well as socially disruptive behaviour of the same gender. As well as this, a shortage of women mean the scarcity of brides, and this means that male marriage has once again become an indicator of social privilege, by 2000 27% of rural males were still unmarried at age 40. This scarcity of brides also leads to kidnapping and trafficking of women for marriage, as well as an increase in the numbers of commercial sex workers. However despite this skewed ratio, there is evidence to show that this traditional preference for boys is shifting, as 37% of young urban women claim to have gender preference for their child, and in fact more women voiced a preference for a female than for a male. As well as this, new propaganda has been brought in the encourage families that having a girl is not a bad thing. Economic Impacts: One benefit that has seemed to arisen from the policy is that it has helped to fuel the economic change seen in China over the past decades, as there is not as much competition between citizens, which has allowed more wealth to be spread around. It has also been noted that at the same time of the population growth slowing down, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP has risen from 550USD to 7000USD, and during this time the growth of the GDP was greater than that of the US, Europe, Japan and India. As well as this is has been noted that the lower fertility rates have enhanced female labour participation, despite this fact, this may be down to the policy that was implanted before the one child policy that encouraged later marriage among other suggestions. It is also uncertain whether this correlation between the two factors necessarily means that the slowed population growth has led to an increase of the countries GDP. The policy is also thought to have a negative impact on the overall economic future of China due to the rapidly aging population, which means more financial dependency is put on adult children to provide for their parents and grandparents (see 4:2:1 phenomenon above). Despite this fact, many studies have concluded that the population transitions that have taken place since the policy was implemented are responsible for 1/6 to 2/5 of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth. As well as this, individual savings rates have increased as well since the policy was implemented, and this is thought to be because households have more money and resources that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t being spent on multiple children. As well as the strain on household resources being decreased, so has the strain on natural resources since 1980, as it has been estimated (as mentioned before) that there would have been 400 million extra people, which would have been a huge additional strain on resources. According to the State Family Planning Commission, coverage of tap water has increased, and so has the coverage of natural gases. Political Impacts: The Chinese government has had to pay a dear cost politically for the introduction of the one child policy. The reports of forced sterilization and induced abortion have invited hostility as well as resistance from the population and the government have received large amounts of criticisms from the international community, the US in particular have expressed their disapproval with Chinese leaders for their sterilization policies. These physical abuses began to disappear by the end of the 1990s and China shifted its program towards encouraging contraception and providing couples with a wider selection of thee contraceptive methods. This shift in operation may have helped to ease the tension somewhat between the birth control officials and civilians. However by the 1990s, the birthing reporting system has all but collapsed and it is now difficult to trust demographic data that is collected and released from government agencies, as it was also reported that as many as 30% of births were not counted in some areas during the 1990s. These problems with birth registrations have spread to other areas of demographic data-gathering operations such as the population census. The two main agencies responsible for collecting fertility information simply gave up their attempt to provide reliable and detailed information on fertility, and a rough estimate was used as an estimate instead. As well as this the government has required increasing amounts of financial resources to continue the birth control policy. During the 1990s alone, the budget allocation towards birth control programs increased 3. times, and has increased during the beginning of the 21st century. As well as this, to initiate the policy an Ã¢â¬ËarmyÃ¢â¬â¢ of birth control officials are needed, and this army has been rapidly increasing, with many on the government payroll. In addition to this, where fertility does not reach a low enough level, local officials are require to spend large amounts of time on the issue, as meeting these birth control goals are major benchmarks used in evaluating the performance and it affects the local officialsÃ¢â¬â¢ political careers. Success or Failure? Ã¢â¬â intrusive: Overall, the campaign has been more of a failure than of success. In terms of what it set out to do, the policy was in fact a success as in the years succeeding its introduction the fertility rates did indeed drop and it was thought that over 300 million births were prevented due to the policy (see above). Although undeniably effective in these terms, it seems obvious that the policy has not caught on in other countries also facing overpopulation such as India, who have seen the one-child policy as too intrusive on their populations lives, which is justifiable considering the shocking stories mentioned above of using force to stop women having a second child in a country that advocates a seemingly Ã¢â¬ËvoluntaryÃ¢â¬â¢ scheme of fewer offspring. Densely populated countries such as India have used alternative schemes such as women advocacy groups, the increased availability of contraception, female empowerment and greater emphasis on sex education from an early age. As the fertility rate in areas which have adopted these frames of population control have dropped even faster than in China, as well as there being no evidence to say that forced abortion and sterilization is widespread, it begs the question that if China had adopted other methods and used more effective government leadership, would the population growth have decreased faster than using methods which invade couples lives and lead many into a state of fear when they become pregnant? However one problem with placing all the success in the hands of the one-child policy is that it may not just be that which has caused the drop in the fertility rates and in fact there are other significant factors, which were thought to of affected it. One factor that may have affected the fertility rates of women instead of the one-child policy in in China is the fact that with a new economy, many young Chinese had new economic opportunities and rising incomes, which would have directed their attention away from marriage and childbearing, this is backed up by the fact that the ge of first marriage rose in the 1990s, and this was evidence that the changing demographic was not down to the one-child policy. As well as this, the general costs of childbearing also increased, and this may have quashed reproductive desires. However perhaps the most significant factor in this is that as mentioned above the fertility rate dropped more significantly in the years proceeding the policy due to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"longer, later, fewerÃ¢â¬ policy which advocated later marriage, longer birth intervals and few births, it must be noted as well that in the policies early years the fertility level hardly affected the fertility rate. If the previous policy had more impact on decreasing population growth then this policy can be seen to be a failure, as it had very little impact but very many negative consequences such as the tough policing of births which sometimes resulted in violent consequences. Despite this, if we can blame the subsequent impacts of declining population growth on the Ã¢â¬Å"longer, later, fewerÃ¢â¬ policy, then we can say that the policy was not directly responsible for the skewing of the gender ratio and the rapidly increasing population, however this does not make the policy a success, as it is likely that the policy did have some effect on the gender ratio and aging population problems. Despite these factors, it is hard to know for sure whether the one-child policy directly effected population growth decline, as there are many other situational factors, which had the possibility to affect it, in this respect we can deem the one-child policy a failure to a small extent, because it is likely that it did have some affect on the population growth decline.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The following new moving ridge in metropolis planning is Ã¢â¬Å" Eco-City Ã¢â¬ in response to planetary clime alterations crisis. It is a comparatively new construct, uniting together thoughts from several subjects such as urban design, urban planning, transit, wellness, lodging, energy, economic development, natural home grounds, public engagement, and societal justness ( Register 1994 ) . In simple word, Eco-city is colony where it allows the citizen to populate and work utilizing minimal resources. As metropoliss continue to turn and population addition quickly, the demands for sustainable signifier of development become increasing pressing. The hunt for appropriate solution and to make more sustainable metropoliss has become the chief concerns of interior decorator, policy shapers and environmental groups. The locations, types of edifices and substructure have direct impacts on its environment, economic system and society. As metropolis continue to turn and alters over a periods of clip, it is hard to alter after inhabitancy and building. So, interior decorators are seeking to avoid that jobs and prefer a new, maestro planned eco-cities. They argue that new eco-cities can to the full incorporate sustainable constructs of urban be aftering rule to make sustainable life environment as we go along with retrofitting bing metropoliss. The maestro program eco-city will be built utilizing all the latest green engineerings. But there people who oppose eco-city construct and called it a Utopian metropolis. But is eco-city truly executable or is it Utopian construct? To to the full understand, beginning of eco-city construct will be analysed. Eco-city originated in 1975 when Richard registry and few friends founded Urban Ecology in Berkeley, California, as Non-profit administration to do reinforced our metropoliss in balance with nature. Harmonizing to Register ( 1994 ) , the intent of urban ecology was to construct in Berkeley a Ã¢â¬Å" slow street Ã¢â¬ which is to hold many trees along route, solar green houses, energy regulation, set up good and efficient public conveyance, advancing pedestrainization as alternate to automobile, keeping regular conference meeting with different interest holder. But it was until the publications of Register Ã¢â¬Ës airy new book called Eco-city Berkeley in 1987, that the urban ecology gained impulse ( Roseland, 2001 ) . And the administration Ã¢â¬Ës new diary called The Urban Ecologist. The administration held First International Eco-City Conference, in Berkeley in 1990 and of all time since it held conference every twelvemonth ask foring people from around the universe to discourse urban jobs and to subject proposal for planing our metropoliss based on ecological rules. In 1992, David Engwicht, an Australian community militant, published Towards an Eco-City, in which he talks about how metropolis contrivers and applied scientists have virtually eliminated effectual human interaction by edifices more roads, shopping promenades, gutting communities and increasing dense traffic. For Engwicht, a metropolis is a topographic point for innovations of maximising interchanging and holding minimized travel distance. The book was subsequently reissued in North America as Reclaiming Our Cities and Towns ( 1993 ) . Engwicht negotiations about how metropolis contrivers and applied scientists have eliminated effectual human exchange by constructing more roads, taking commercialism out of the metropoliss into strip promenades, gutting communities, and increasing traffic human deaths. A metropolis is an innovation for maximising exchange and minimising travel ( Engwicht, 1993 ) . He advocates eco-city where there is dealing of all kinds of goods, money, thoughts, em otions, familial stuff, etc and where people move freely via pes, bikes, and mass theodolite and interact freely without fright of traffic and pollutions. But it was until the 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës, the usage of fossil fuels, chemically controlled agribusiness, deforestation and depletion of marine resources was thought to be non in dangers. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development ( the Brundtland Commission ) , released a drumhead study called Ã¢â¬Å" our Common Future Ã¢â¬ which cause widespread concerns on universe intensifying environmental debasement ( WCED 1987 ) . And this pushed sustainable development on the head. Assorted industries and sector are besides traveling for sustainable development. The issue of sustainable planning is besides a concern for contriver, urban interior decorator, building industries, development authorization and the population at big. Register, Engwicht and Urban Ecology surely deserve recognition for popularising the term Ã¢â¬Å" eco-city Ã¢â¬ in the last decennary, but the eco-city construct is strongly influenced by other motions as good ( Roseland, 2001 ) . The mission of Urban Ecology is to make ecological metropoliss based on the following 10 rules ( Urban Ecology 1996 ) :Revise land-use precedences to make compact, diverse, green, safe, pleasant, and critical mixed-use communities near theodolite nodes and other transit installations.Revise transit precedences to favor pes, bike, cart, and theodolite over cars, and to stress Ã¢â¬Å" entree by propinquity. Ã¢â¬ Restore damaged urban environments, particularly creeks, shore lines, ridgelines, and wetlands.Create decent, low-cost, safe, convenient, and racially and economically assorted lodging.Nurture societal justness and create improved chances for adult females, people of colour, and the handicapped.Support local agribusiness, urban greening undertaki ngs, and community horticulture.Promote recycling, advanced appropriate engineering, and resource preservation while cut downing pollution and risky wastes.Work with concerns to back up ecologically sound economic activity while detering pollution, waste, and the usage and production of risky stuffs.Promote voluntary simpleness and deter inordinate ingestion of material goods.Increase consciousness of the local environment and bioregion through militant and educational undertakings that increase public consciousness of ecological sustainability issues.The practical application of these rules has non been truly promoting for many old ages until literature that promotes the thoughts began to look. It appears in different nomenclature as per the orientations of the writers. The Authors include Designers, Practitioners, Visionaries and Activists, and the nomenclature includes everything from neotraditional town planning, prosaic pockets, reurbanization, post-industrial suburbs, sustaina ble metropoliss, green metropoliss and eco-communities. Although, the writers Ã¢â¬Ë orientation has discernable differences in analysis, accent, and scheme between the fluctuations as shown in table-1, the Ã¢â¬Å" eco-city Ã¢â¬ subject can embrace any and all of them. The term eco-city can be applied to bing eco-city or maestro program eco-city as affirm by Register Ã¢â¬Ës when he explains that Ã¢â¬Å" there are two ways to travel about constructing eco-cities: altering bing towns or constructing new 1s Ã¢â¬ ( Register 1987 ) . Citizen organisations and municipal functionaries in metropoliss and towns around the universe have late started experimenting on this eco-city construct to run into the societal and environmental challenges ( Roseland 1997, 1998 ) . There is a pressing realisation that Urban planning is a important direction tool for covering with the sustainable urbanisation challenges confronting twenty-first century metropoliss. Many metropoliss has applied eco-city planning construct although most of them in little graduated table. Chattanooga and the San Francisco Bay Area in the U.S. , Ottawa, Hamilton-Wentworth, and Greater Toronto in Canada, and Curitiba in Brazil are some of the earliest metropoliss where this construct has been successfully applied. Curitiba, a little Brazilian metropolis, is one of the most sustainable metropoliss in the universe. It has received international acknowledgment for its incorporate transit and land-use planning, and for its waste direction plans. The metropolis Ã¢â¬Ës success is due to strong leadership-city functionaries who focused on simple, flexible, and low-cost solutions. Throughout the undertaking, the authorities conducted regular meeting with citizen so that citizen are involved in the procedure ( Rabinovitch 1996 ) . Emboldened by the success of the above undertakings, Designer and local authorities are be aftering for monolithic inspection and repair of traditional manner of metropolis planning. They are looking at a manner to be after new metropoliss integrating the full above construct. China, one of the universe most thickly settled states in the universe, faced monolithic environmental job. It has emerged as major industrial power but at a great cost. The environment debasement is so terrible that it is a cause for concern in China and could hold international reverberations. Since pollution know no boundaries. Sulphur dioxide and N oxides produce by China Ã¢â¬Ës coal-burning power workss fall as acerb rain on Seoul, South Korea, and Tokyo. Suspended particulate over Los Angeles metropolis originates in China, harmonizing to the Journal of Geophysical Research ( Kahn and Yardley 2007 ) . The Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation ( SIIC ) hired Arup in 2005, to plan a metropolis which would entirely utilize sustainable energy ( solar panels, air current turbines and bio-fuels ) , self-sufficing and cut down energy ingestion by 66 % in comparision to Shanghai. The eco-city of Dongtan, which is be located on the island of Chongming, non far from Shanghai will be one of the universe largest eco-city to supply lodging for 500,000 people from rural countries. The Dongtan metropolis will cover about 8,800 hectares which is approximately equal to the size of Manhattan Island. Dongtan will hold ecological footmark of 2.2 hour angles per individual by agencies of a combination of behaviour alteration and energy efficiency which is really close to bound of sustainability of 1.9 hour angle set Forth by World Wide Fund for Nature. China is besides partnering with Singapore to construct eco-city in Tianjin based on three harmoniousnesss rules which are people-people, people-environment and people-economy ( Quek 2008 ) . The 30-square-kilometer site is a otiose land and H2O scarceness country which will be built over a period of 15 old ages at a cost of around 50 billion kwais ( S $ 10 billion ) . The standard for choice of site are that it should be wasted land and H2O scarce country. First, reconstructing the jiyun river will be top precedence for propose new metropolis of 350,000. Renewable energy like solar and wind power, rainwater harvest home, effluent intervention and desalinization of sea H2O are some of the proposal. United Arab Emirates has planned to construct the universe Ã¢â¬Ës most sustainable metropolis, called Masdar City, enterprises of Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company. It is an ambitious undertaking which will be $ 22 billion to construct a new, zero-emissions metropolis for 50,000 occupants in Abu Dhabi. The undertaking is launched in 2007 and is designed by British house Foster + Partners. The propose new metropolis will hold new university, the Headquarters for Abu Dhabi Ã¢â¬Ës Future Energy Company, particular economic zones and an Innovation Center. Harmonizing to the interior decorator, Masdar eco-city is to be constructed in an energy efficient manner that depends on big photovoltaic power works to run into energy demands, which shall be for 2nd stage of the metropolis enlargement. The metropolis is a auto free, with a maximal walk-to distance of 200m to the nearest conveyance nexus and comfortss. The streets are compact to promote walking and are complemented by a individualiz ed rapid conveyance system. Due to it concentration, the paseo and streets are shaded making a pedestrian-friendly environment. The metropolis will hold air current, photovoltaic farms, research Fieldss and plantations, so that it is wholly self-sufficient. Masdar City will be built in seven stages, the first of which is the Masdar Institute, which is set to be completed in 2010. The metropolis Ã¢â¬Ës stages will be increasingly built over the following decennary with the first stage making completion in 2013 ( Foster and Partner ) . The thought of a metropolis without any waste, landfill, auto, ego contained or without any C emanation seem really desirable for a metropolis but for some sceptic it a Utopian dream which will ne'er happen. Skeptics are oppugning whether wholly planing a new metropolis is possible integrating all the eco-city constructs due to clip and cost involved. The chief failing for maestro program eco-city is the big inputs of energy required to build an full, functional metropolis as a long uninterrupted undertaking. They are concern that it might merely be a scheme used to screen from environmental unfavorable judgment while states like China and UAE continue to turn along the same unsustainable way. However, states like China and UAE are in a place to fund such sort of undertakings and if it is successful it will make a case in point for other parts of the universe every bit good. Unfortunately, Dongtan eco-city ne'er materialise. Although, the highest echelon in Chinese functionary expresses has shown acute involvement in the undertaking, the first stage of building which is to be ready for Shanghai exhibition 2010 has non even started. The Dongtan eco-city in malice of being a authorities enterprise has failed to happen. The Mayor of Shanghai has been sentence to 18 old ages jail term on corruptness charges and maltreatment of power in 2008 ( Larson 2009 ) . Skeptics of eco-city are stating that policy shapers in China misuse the term of eco-city, to cut down unfavorable judgment of China Ã¢â¬Ës hapless environment records without holding any existent committedness to the thought. As for Masdar eco-city, work has already started for stage 1. However, skeptics are concern that it might be merely an stray viridity in the desert where the remainder of UAE proceed in the same line of large ecological footmark which is even bigger than United State. They are besides discerning about the corporal energy used in edifices and substructure which are really high. The heavy dependant on engineering for personal rapid conveyance and substructure is another issue. Since the engineering for personal rapid conveyance is non to the full developed and co-ordinating substructure with different bureaus is hard. The construct of constructing a metropolis from a abrasion or retrofitting bing edifice or redeveloping bing metropolis are some of the combustion issues. Planing a new metropolis from abrasion permits a greater comprehensive, whole systems attack, and more grades of freedom than version of an bing metropolis ( Fox 2008 ) . On the other manus, the resources and energy needed for new building of a metropolis will be far greater than redeveloping an bing metropolis. However, the beliefs and motion toward eco-cities has spread worldwide and has taken strong clasp among contriver. In malice of reverse for some undertaking, eco-city has will be chief driving force for today metropoliss and tomorrow metropoliss. Eco-cities can be built on bing eco-cities or new maestro program eco-city. Most propose maestro program eco-city is to be developed in several phases in the following 15 to forty old ages. Some of the relevant issue for Eco-city planning construct for developing new metropolis or accommodating for bing metropoliss are as follow:Eco-city is based on holistic attack. This incorporate attack is hindered by disconnected administrative constructions, political competitions and a neglect for citizen expertness. As in Dongtan instance, the surrounding dwellers are non even consulted and non cognizant of the undertakings.Eco-city construct is non truly encouraged by policy shapers and contriver as there are leery of the purpose as it involve alternate ways of decision-making ( e.g. community engagement ) , the execution of new engineerings ( e.g. like Personal rapid theodolite for Masdar or energy coevals ) and new organizational solutions ( e.g. multiple usage ) . The extra costs involved and loss of influence are some of their chief concerns.Eco-city construct may neglect due to miss of political will and committednesss on the portion of everyone involved.The Initial investi ngs are really high compared to traditional attack to be aftering which can scarce possible investor.However, for successful execution of eco-city, committedness from single or Party involved is paramount. Vision, aspiration and believing large in long term are some of the necessary demand. Besides, there has to be free flow of information and trust between the policy shaper and non-policy shaper. There has to be creative activity of win-win state of affairs for everyone to do it successful. There has to be via media in difference of sentiment and integrity of confederation. A series of challenges exist for developing metropoliss in many portion of the universe, peculiarly in developing states where rapid economic development will set force per unit area on metropoliss to suit lifting population and more substructures. It is the topographic point where following megacities are coming up. The interior decorator, public policy shaper are committed to developing eco-cities and other types of sustainable communities in the face of clime alteration, environmental pollution, H2O deficit, and energy demand. Today utopia Ã¢â¬Ës vision can go tomorrow world. Many of the sustainable metropolis stress on compact land usage, clean conveyance, waste direction, renewable energy ( wind turbines and solar energy ) . Most of eco-city program are immense and need long term investings. But should we turn away from Utopian visions they provoke? Planing wholly new metropoliss is expensive, and it is non possible to construct all new metropoliss. However, we can endeavor to better bing metropoliss when there is an copiousness of already established metropoliss and urban countries. In my sentiment, I think we should encompass them and work towards seeking for bettering them. Possibly, the graduated tables of new maestro eco-city undertaking demand to be smaller so as to hold short building clip and less dearly-won. Someday the impressive catch phrases, such as Ã¢â¬Å" carbon-neutral Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" zero-waste Ã¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å" car-free Ã¢â¬ for a metropolis might be world.MentionDaly, H. 1973. Toward a Steady-State Economy, Freeman, San Francisco ( 1973 ) .McDonnell, M.J. , Hahs, A.K. , Breuste, J.H. 2009, Ecology of a metropoliss and towns: A comparative attack. Cambridge University Press 200 9.Rabinovitch, J. 1996. Integrated transit and land usage planning channel Curitiba Ã¢â¬Ës growing. In World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Program, United Nations Development Program, The World Bank, World Resources 1996-97: The Urban Environment. New York: Oxford University Press.Roseland, M. , 2001, The eco-city attack to sustainable development in urban countries. In: Devuyst D, Hens L, De Lannoy W ( explosive detection systems ) . How green is the metropolis? Sustainability appraisal and the direction of urban environments. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 85-104.Register, R. 1987. Eco-City Berkeley: Building Cities for a Healthy Future. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.Register, R. 1994. Eco-cities: Rebuilding civilisation, reconstructing nature. In D. Aberley, ed. , Futures By Design: The Practice of Ecological Planning. Gabriola Island, B.C. : New Society Publishers.Roseland, M. 1995. Sustainable communities: An scrutiny of the literature. Ã¢â¬ In Sustainable Communities Resource Package. Toronto: Ontario Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.Roseland, M. 1997. Dimensions of the eco-city. City: The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planing 14,4: 197-202.Roseland, M. , erectile dysfunction. 1997. Eco-City Dimensions: Healthy Communities, Healthy Planet. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.Roseland, M. 1998. Toward Sustainable Communities, ResourcesRoseland, M. , Ã¢â¬Å" Sustainable Community Development: Integrating Environmental, Economic, and Social Objectives, Ã¢â¬ Progress in Planning, Volume 54 ( 2 ) , October 2000, pp. 73-132.Roseland, M. , Dimension of the eco-city, Cities, Volume 14, Issue 4, August 1997, Pages 197-202Resilience Alliance ( 2007 ) A research prospectus for urban resiliency. A resiliency confederation enterprise for transitioning urban systems towards sustainable hereafters. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. resalliance.org/files/1172764197_urbanresiliencere searchprospe ctusv7feb07.pdf accessed on 29 March 2010Kenworthy, J.R. , The eco-city: 10 cardinal conveyance and planning dimensions for sustainable metropolis development, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 18, No. 1, 67-85 ( 2006 )World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future. , Oxford University Press, New York ( 1987 ) .Dongtan, An Eco-City, edited by Zhao Yan, Herbert Girardet, et was published by Arup and SIIC in February 2006.UN HABITAT, Planning Sustainable Cities: Policy waies. Global Report on Human Settlements 2009. Abridged edition. Gutenberg Press, Malta. Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unhabitat.org/grhs/2009. Accessed on 2 March 2010Kahn, J and Yardley, J. As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes. The New York Times. August 26, 2007. Available on hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/world/asia/26china.html Accessed on 27 March 2010Dongtan: The un iverse Ã¢â¬Ës first large-scale eco-city? Available on hypertext transfer protocol: //sustainablecities.dk/en/city-projects/cases/dongtan-the-world-s-first-large-scale-eco-cityQuek, Tracy, S'pore, China interruption land, straits times, China Correspondent. Sep 29, 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.straitstimes.com/Breaking % 2BNews/World/Story/STIStory_283867.html. Accessed on 27 March 2010Larson, Christina. China Ã¢â¬Ës Grand Plans for Eco-Cities Now Lie Abandoned. Yale e360. 06 Apr 2009. Available on hypertext transfer protocol: //e360.yale.edu/content/feature.msp? id=2138. Accessed on 28 March 2010Fox, Jesse. Ã¢â¬Å" Ecocities of Tomorrow: Can Foster + Partners Ã¢â¬Ë Masdar City in the U.A.E. be Truly sustainable? Ã¢â¬ . Treehugger. March 4, 2008. Available on hypertext transfer protocol: //www.treehugger.com/files/2008/03/masdar-roundtable.php. Accessed on 29 March 2010Richard Register Ã¢â¬â Writer, theoretician, philosopher and 35 twelvemonth veteran of the ecocity motion. Founder of Ecocity Builders and Urban Ecology, and writer of Ecocities: Rebuilding Cities in Balance with Nature.
Friday, November 8, 2019
How to Make a Cloud in a Bottle - Science Demonstration Heres a quick and easy science project you can do: make a cloud inside a bottle. Clouds form when water vapor forms tiny visible droplets. This results from cooling the vapor. It helps to provide particles around which the water can liquefy. In this project, well use smoke to help form a cloud. Cloud in a Bottle Materials You only need a few basic materials for this science project: 1-liter bottleWarm waterMatch Lets Make Clouds Pour just enough warm water in the bottle to cover the bottom of the container.Light the match and place the match head inside the bottle.Allow the bottle to fill with smoke.Cap the bottle.Squeeze the bottle really hard a few times. When you release the bottle, you should see the cloud form. It may disappear between squeezes. The Other Way to Do It You can also apply the ideal gas lawÃ to make a cloud in a bottle:PV nRT, where P is pressure, V is volume, n is number of moles, R is a constant, and T is temperature. If the amount of gas (as in a closed container) isnt changed, then if you raise the pressure, the only way for the temperature of the gas to be unchanged is by decreasing the container volume proportionally. If youre not sure you can squeeze the bottle hard enough to achieve this (or that it would bounce back) and want a really dense cloud, you can do the not-as-child-friendly version of this demonstration (still pretty safe). Pour hot water from a coffeemaker into the bottom of the bottle. Instant cloud! (... and a slight melting of the plastic) If you cant find any matches, light a strip of cardboard on fire, insert it into the bottle, and let the bottle get nice and smoky. How Clouds Form Molecules of water vapor will bounce around like molecules of other gases unless you give them a reason to stick together. Cooling the vapor slows the molecules down, so they have less kinetic energy and more time to interact with each other. How do you cool the vapor? When you squeeze the bottle, you compress the gas and increase its temperature. Releasing the container lets the gas expand, which causes its temperature to go down. Real clouds form as warm air rises. As air gets higher, its pressure is reduced. The air expands, which causes it to cool. As it cools below the dew point, water vapor forms the droplets we see as clouds. Smoke acts the same in the atmosphere as it does in the bottle. Other nucleation particles include dust, pollution, dirt, and even bacteria.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Meaning and Significance of a PsyD Ph.D. degree, the doctor of philosophy degree, as it is the older of the two degrees and is awarded in every other graduate discipline, not just in psychology. But what is the PsyD and is it for you? What Is the PsyD? The Doctor of Psychology, known as the PsyD, is a professional degree awarded in the two main practice fields of psychology: Clinical and counseling psychology. The degrees origins lie in the 1973 Vail Conference on Professional Training in Psychology whose attendees articulated a need for a practitioners degree to train graduates for applied work in psychology (that is, therapy). The PsyD prepares students for careers as practicing psychologists. What Training Is Required to Earn a PsyD? Doctor of Psychology programs are rigorous. They typically require several years of coursework, several years of supervised practice, and the completion of a dissertation project. Graduates of American Psychological Association (APA) accredited PsyD programs are eligible for licensure in all US states. However, graduates of programs that are not accredited by APA may find it difficult to become licensed in their state. APA maintains a list of accredited programs on its website. The major difference between a PsyD and the more traditional Ph.D. in Psychology is that there is less of an emphasis on research in PsyD programs than in Ph.D. programs. PsyD students are immersed in applied training right from the start of graduate study whereas Ph.D. students often begin their clinical training later in favor of an early start in research. Therefore PsyD graduates tend to excel in practice-related knowledge and are able to apply research findings to their applied work. However, they generally do not engage in research. Can You Teach or Work in Academia With a PsyD? Yes. But graduates of Ph.D. programs generally are more competitive applicants for academic positions because of their research experience. PsyD psychologists are often hired as part-time adjunct instructors. PsyD psychologists are also hired in some full-time academic positions, especially those that teach applied skills such as therapeutic techniques, but full-time instructor positions are more often held by Ph.D. psychologists. If your dream is to become a professor (or even if you see it as a possibility in the future) a PsyD is not your best choice. How is the PsyD Perceived? Given that it is a relatively new degree (four decades old), applicants are wise to ask about how the PsyD is perceived. Early PsyD graduates may have been viewed by other psychologists as having lesser degrees, but that is not the case today. All clinical psychology doctoral programs are highly competitive with a rigorous admission process. PsyD students successfully compete with Ph.D. students for clinical internships, and graduates are employed in clinical settings. The public often lacks knowledge about the PsyD versus Ph.D. but the public often holds inaccurate views of psychology as well. For example, most people also are unaware of the many practice areas within psychology, such as clinical, counseling, and school, and assume that all psychologists have the same training. Generally speaking, most people view PsyD practitioners as psychologists and doctors, too. Why Choose a PsyD Over a Ph.D.? Choose the PsyD if your ultimate goal is to practice. If you see yourself conducting therapy through your career, perhaps becoming an administrator for a mental health setting, consider a PsyD. If you have no interest in conducting research and dont see yourself developing one, consider a PsyD. If you dont see yourself in academia other than as part-time adjunct instructor teaching a course here and there, consider a PsyD. Finally, remember that the PsyD is not your only choice if you want to practice. Several masters degrees can prepare you to conduct therapy.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Writing Position paper - Assignment Example Technically, Puget Sound is the area of water east of Admiralty Inlet where the ocean comes along the Pacific Coast providing ports for ocean transportation in cities such as Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia, Washington (http://www.gonorthwest.com/washington/puget/Puget_Sound.htm). However, Puget Sound also refers to the inland port cities and towns. The Puget Sound inland area has one of the worst traffic congestion problems in the nation. In fact, drivers in this area are in the top third in terms of time lost due to waiting in traffic. This is not a list a region wants to top. Adding to the challenge is the fact that the Puget Sound area has had a large increase in population and the highest unemployment rate the area has seen in years. This means that traffic occurs at all hours, not just the traditional rush hours as one would expect (Cole, 2000). If the government officials of Puget Sound would allow the development of toll roads in the area, this would greatly reduce the amount of traffic congestion in the area. The Puget SoundÃ¢â¬â¢s current transportation network of roads and highways was built in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The population of the area is now 60% higher than it was when the roads were built. There has been little change over the years to keep up with the demand of more drivers on the road (Washington Policy Center, 2011). This is obviously the major reason that traffic gridlock is such an issue. Too many people, not enough room on the roads and not enough roads to drive on pretty much sums of the problem of the traffic in Puget Sound. Aware that the level of traffic congestion in the Puget Sound area is a real problem, the Puget Sound Regional Council, took on the project of developing a transportation plan to analyze how best to address the traffic issues. The issues that the planners faced are funding, how best to expand the current
Friday, November 1, 2019
MUS 306 Introduction to Jazz - Essay Example After school my friends and I bordered a bus, our stop was no any other place but scullars jazz club. How thrilling was it to set eyes on this big entertainment scenario, in our hands were tickets for the entry fee. On the stage there was colorful arrangement of instruments, their was a tall man with a complete apparel holding a golden shinning trumpet, on his immediate right was this slender man with a white shirt touching his saxophone repeatedly staring at the crowd which was almost going wild due to the thrills from the band. The description is not yet over if we leave behind this short blonde with a piano spread before him then there was this wooden gadget which I could identify as the clarinet. The clarinet is one of the prominent gadgets used in the jazz music stage. On the middle was this tall stand with a silvery microphone As was routine with these jazz band music it was played from Wednesday to Saturday every week. Our timing was pretty good we were at the club by 10.00 pm. The stage floor was covered in black soft velvet. As the revelers that night we took a sit on the sofas with our tables full of well lit candles with some wine on our glasses. Yes this is how the place should be, I whispered to myself. The people I saw to be following the sound from their seats. The song was summertime by Gershwin, in most of the occasions people could stand with their spouses dancing salsas kind of dance In its performance the music involved diversified styles of communicative aspects ranging from the tonal variation in which there was difference in the way the sound flow was. The content of the music involved the various life issues it was a blend of many music features in which the voice of the singer was well accompanied by the sound from the instruments. In addition, there is expression of emotions and feelings by the singer the case be. This actually involved the love