Monday, September 30, 2019

Obamacare Cons Essay

Even though ObamaCare does a lot right, it does have some consequences for specific groups of Americans. ObamaCare does hurt a small percentage of small businesses, has had a negative effect on insurance premiums and has made some reforms that have hurt some medical industries and their workers. Here are some of the cons of the healthcare bill: ObamaCare Cons: Taxes on Small Business  2% of firms in the US have over 50 full-time employees and will have to choose to insure full-time workers or pay a fine. To avoid this some businesses will cut employee hours or not hire. Some things worth noting are that the fine isn’t paid for your first 30 workers. Also, many businesses are coming up with solutions that don’t hurt the workforce such as passing the extra costs onto consumers. Please be aware that when politicians say, â€Å"small business† they are also referring to the top 3% of small businesses who include Hedge Funds which use loopholes to pass as small businesses. ObamaCare Cons: Religious Beliefs There is some argument over ObamaCare funding women’s health services like contraception. There are exceptions built into the law to refuse to provide these services to women based on religious grounds, but this has non the less been causing issues on the ground, in the political arena and in the courts. ObamaCare Cons: Rising Premiums ObamaCare doesn’t raise premiums itself. In fact, it reforms the insurance industry, finding ways to drive down costs, make the quality of insurance better and prevent insurance company abuses like . Unfortunately, many provisions of ObamaCare that offer protections to consumers do not go into law until 2014. In the meantime, premium rates have been rising at alarming rates. ObamaCare doesn’t offer a protection beyond allowing states to enact the provision against price gouging. Many States are enforcing this, while  others aren’t. ObamaCare Cons: ObamaCare Insurance Exchanges Another con of ObamaCare is that 21 states planning to or are opting out of the State Run Exchanges, letting the federal government run their exchanges for them. The claim is that this is a cost cutting measure for the State, however the truth is much more complicated. This provision was meant to be in the bill, but it is being abused as a way to avoid providing subsidies to low and middle income Americans and forcing the Federal taxpayers to take care of anti-ObamaCare state’s constituents. This has resulted in a 3.5% fee for insurance companies to sell insurance on the federal exchange. Learn more about the State Run Insurance Exchanges. ObamaCare Cons: Tax for Not Buying Insurance Come 2014, you must purchase insurance or pay a â€Å"penalty income tax†. The first year it is $95 or 1% of your income. In order for the program to work at its best ideally everyone would have insurance resulting in affordable quality insurance for all, the tax helps offset the estimated 6 million people will pay the fine in the first year instead of purchasing insurance. ObamaCare Cons: Big Business Taxes Medical device taxes and â€Å"drug innovator† taxes dig into the profits of some of the power houses in their respective industries. These taxes are a reaction to the large profit margins these companies have and the hold they have over the competition. They drive up the cost of health care, thus they are taxed to help pay for health care reform. However, taxes on large businesses may have unintended consequences in the job market and in aspects of the health care industry. We don’t have proof of their effects yet. ObamaCare Cons: Taxes on the 2% The top 2% of businesses and individuals in the US will pay some extra taxes.  You could argue that are closer to the 3% will get hit the hardest because the have the least extra cash to stay in the game with so it hurts them more. However, the most vocal opponents and the ones who fund the anti-ObamaCare campaigns are the big businesses who don’t like regulation, entitlement programs or any tax or program that affects their bottom line. Aside from the above mentioned consequences its important not to make their interests our own. ObamaCare Cons: ObamaCare Hurts Medicare ObamaCare cuts $716 billion from Medicare and reinvests the money back into the program. Since there is such a big overhaul ObamaCare set up a committee to oversee spending and effectiveness. Due to the sheer volume of reforms some of them, even though well intentioned, are sure to have unintended consequences and need adjusting. Although ObamaCare has already helped tens of millions of seniors save money on drugs and get access to better health care, there are some caveats. ObamaCare is projected to cost $1.1 trillion over the next ten years, and in order for the program to work as intended this is going to include funding from the tax payers and from the States. However, the end result of ObamaCare’s spending is a $200 billion dollar reduction of the deficit over the next decade, states also receive between 90 – 100% of funding for most ObamaCare related programs they set up. A few states, including Nevada and Michigan, have done studies that show how the States can save billions with ObamaCare. Health Insurance companies stand to make billions, despite a loss on profit per plan, since they will be insuring millions of new Americans.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Air Asia: Asia’s Leading Airline Essay

Company Background Asia’s leading airline was established with the dream of making flying possible for everyone. Since 2001, AirAsia has swiftly broken travel norms around the globe and has risen to become the world’s best. With a route network that spans through to over 20 countries, AirAsia continues to pave the way for low-cost aviation through our innovative solutions, efficient processes and a passionate approach to business. Together with our associate companies, AirAsia X, Thai AirAsia, Indonesia AirAsia, Philippines’ AirAsia Inc and AirAsia Japan , AirAsia is set to take low-cost flying to an all new high with our belief, â€Å"Now Everyone Can Fly†. (2005, AirAsia) Establishment AirAsia was established in 1993 and began operations on 18 November 1996. It was originally founded by a government-owned conglomerate, DRB-Hicom. On 2 December 2001 the heavily-indebted airline was bought by former Time Warner executive Tony Fernandes’s company Tune Air Sdn Bhd for the token sum of one ringgit (about USD 0.26 at the time) with USD 11 million (MYR 40 million) worth of debts. Fernandes the CEO, turned the company around, producing a profit in 2002 and launching new routes from its hub in Kuala Lumpur, undercutting former monopoly operator Malaysia Airlines with promotional fares as low as MYR 1 (USD 0.27). International flights In 2003, AirAsia opened a second hub at Senai International Airport in Johor Bahru near Singapore and launched its first international flight toBangkok. AirAsia has since started a Thai subsidiary, added Singapore itself to the destination list, and started flights to Indonesia. Flights to Macaubegan in June 2004, and flights to mainland China (Xiamen) and the Philippines (Manila) in April 2025. Flights to Vietnam and Cambodia followed later in 2005 and to Brunei and Myanmar in 2006, the latter by Thai AirAsia. On August 2006, AirAsia took over Malaysia Airlines’s Rural Air Service routes in Sabah and Sarawak, operating under the FlyAsianXpress brand. The routes were subsequently returned to MASwings a year later, citing commercial reasons. AirAsia’s CEO Tony Fernandes subsequently unveiled a five-year plan to further enhance its presence in Asia. Under the plan, AirAsia proposes to strengthen and enhance its route network by connecting all the existing cities in the region and expanding further into Vietnam, Indonesia, Southern China (Kun Ming, Xiamen, Shenzen) and India. The airline will focus on developing its hubs in Bangkok and Jakarta through its sister companies, Thai AirAsia and Indonesia AirAsia. With increase frequency and the addition of new routes, AirAsia expects passenger volume to reach 18 million by the end of 2007. Route expansion On 27 September 2008, the company had on its list 106 new routes to be added to its then-current list of 60. The number of old routes discontinued has not been publicly disclosed. On 2nd of April 2012 Air Asia had their first flight from Sydney to Kuala Lumpur. Sebastian Tegan-Anderson was one of the lucky few to be on this historical flight. AirAsia-Malaysian Airlines Alliance In August 2011, AirAsia agreed to forge an alliance with Malaysian Airlines by means of a share swap. The alliance was struck down by the Malaysian government, in effect voiding the agreement of both airlines. AirAsia’s vision To be the largest low cost airline in Asia and serving the 3 billion people who are currently underserved with poor connectivity and high fares. Information Technology Management (Maintenance & Operation) Information Technology management is the discipline whereby all of the technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staffs who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like change management, software design, network planning, tech support etc. (2009, McNurlin) According to Bird, a primary focus of IT management is the value creation made possible by technology. This requires the alignment of technology and business strategies. While the value creation for an organization involves a network of relationships between internal and external environments, technology plays an important role in improving the overall value chain of an organization. However, this increase requires business and technology management to work as a creative, synergistic, and collaborative team instead of a purely mechanistic span of control. Technology Management is just the same as any other management disciplines that are out there. It is basically employing the following traits. †¢Planning †¢Organizing †¢Staffing †¢Implementing †¢Monitoring †¢Evaluation However, for Technology Management to be effectively implemented, the Technology Factor has to be added to all the traits mentioned above. We all know that technology makes life much easier or more complicated based on how it is used or implemented, but technology will form into everyone’s life. But technology was made and developed primarily because there is a need to be fulfilled and you want to make things much easier. Technology thereby becomes an imperative factor that you need to incorporate in the daily carrying on of your professional lives. It is a very important tool, together with the values that go along with it; innovation, creativity, efficiency; in the conduct of your business. Technology applies to all, from the marketing to communications, product development to process innovations and so on. Throughout information technology management, it will be able to show one the way to harness the technology developed and innovated in order to create value for the company, giving AirAsia the edge to compete, providing the company with the competitive advantage. A person who would be in charge of this department in an organization would be the Chief Information Officer or CIO. Chief information Officer (CIO) is a position commonly given to the person in an enterprise who supports the enterprise goals which are responsible for the computer systems and information technology (IT) applications. The importance of information technology has created a trend whereby the position of the CIO has come to be viewed in many organizations as a key contributor in formulating strategic goals (Qais International, n.d). According to a cited Meta Group study, leading CIOs are playing dramatically more influential business roles than they have at any time in past (Bernard.A, 2005). Besides that, Graham Waller, senior vice president with Meta’s Executive Directions advisory service is quoted as saying, â€Å"Savvy CIOs have demonstrated their transformational value to senior management during the past three years, even while operating during a down economy.† In recent years, an increasingly significant business role has developed from being a purely technical support functions toward a more commercially-focused part of the business. Currently CIOs are expected to create innovative solutions which could affect the success of the organization such as increase profits, reduce costs, and to contribute in important managerial decisions (Hooshmand.A, 2008). In the past, CIOs were only responsible for the computer systems and information technology applications that supported enterprise objectives. In this case the Regional Head for Innovation Commercial & Technology for AirAsia would be Mr. Lau Kin Choy. In order to transform the vision into reality for an organization such as AirAsia, requires more than a great strategy. It is essential that the organization make the strategy an integral part of its operation (Bradford, 2002). This statement, although made with reference to the business strategy and operations, also holds true for business strategy and IT initiative. When the business strategy and IT are aligned, the IT infrastructure can continuously sense the changing business needs and respond by provisioning or redeploying resources to match the demands of the business. (Pultorak, 2004). AirAsia being a Lower Cost Carrier or ,LCC, business strategy is that of focused leadership that requires continuous cost reductions in order to stay ahead of its competition all along the value chain. The various Information Technology implementations that have been made by AirAsia and its benefit are as follows. The few system implementations that AirAsia have done in its marketing and sales activities (Yield Management System and Computer Reservation System) as well as operation activity (Enterprise Resource Planning System), The Computer Reservation System (CRS), a Wireless Delivery System (WDS), and the Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP) AirAsia has realized then increased revenue from up to 3 to 4 percent for the same number of aircrafts by taking advantage of the forecast of the high/low demand patterns, and effectively shifting the demand from low period to high period and by charging a premium for late bookings. Over the past couple of years, AirAsia have actually lowered prices (essential for LCC) as the YMS has given them the window to increase their revenue by offering higher discounts, more frequently during off-peak times while raising prices only marginally for peak times. (Voneche, n.d). Computer Reservation System (CRS) AirAsia’s CRS (Open Skies by Navitaire) has helped it to grow at a dramatic pace in the past couple of years â€Å"Navitaire’s Open Skies technology has truly enabled Airasia’s growth from 2 million passengers to 7.7 million passengers in less than two years. Open Skies scaled easily to accommodate our growth.† – Tony Fernandes – Source: Navitaire ( It is an integrated web-based reservation and inventory system. It includes Internet, call center, airport departure control and more. It is a direct sales engine that effectively eliminates the middleman (travel agents) and the sales commissions that need to be paid to them. Centralized customer data is also maintained by Open Skies and this helps AirAsia to track booking and schedule flight activities with real-time, on-demand reporting feature. The vast booking information that is provided online to the customers acts as a force that brings more customers to use the website thus reducing the customer support costs. An important feature is that Open Skies seamlessly integrates with the already implemented YMS so that the systems can be used in unison for pricing and revenue maximization (by providing information on bookings, schedules and driving down the costs of operation at the same time. This CRS enabled AirAsia to introduce the first ticket less travel option and also provides features such as advanced boarding passes in addition to online booking that enabled the growth of AirAsia as these features attracted customers that did not have the time for purchasing tickets from counters and coming in 1 hour early for securing a seat on the aircraft. AirAsia have proposed to implement a Wireless Delivery System (WDS) to expand it reach via mobile phones. With this, potential customers will be able to book tickets via their mobile phones. This is a strategic move for growth as the Asia-Pacific region has a larger population of mobile phone users rather than internet users. Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP) AirAsia has, as in of May 2005, opted for a full fledged ERP system implemented by Avanade consultants. By implementing this package AirAsia is looking to successfully maintain process integrity, reduce financial month-end closing processing times, and speed up reporting and data retrieval processes. (Microsoft Malaysia) APS (Advanced planning and scheduling system) AirAsia has now implemented the Aps system, where it works as a decision support software application. This Advances Planning and Scheduling system aare usually implemented as an add-on software that complements a company’s transaction software system by providing advances analyticl andd optimization functionality focusid on improving supply chain planning. There are different modules that come into play with the APS such as Demand Planning, Network Optimization, Supply Planning, and Factory Schedule software that all work together to provide the APS’s core functionality. IT Implementations and Strategic Alignment With the above implementations, it is clear that the business strategy and the IT strategy are aligned to for AirAsia to operate on a low-cost model. There are four models to Strategic Alignment Perspective (Henderson and Venkatraman, 1993). Namely: Strategic Execution, Technology Transformation, Competitive Potential and Service Level. All the systems implemented act as enablers in achieving the business strategy of AirAsia by reducing the costs of operation (CRS, ERP) and maximizing revenue (YMS). These cost savings are directly transferred to the customer with reduced prices of traveling, discounts etc. The business strategy acts as the driver in this perspective (Technology Transformation). Figure 2 – Technology Transformation Source: Henderson and Venkatraman, IBM Systems Journal 1993 With expansion as one of the main future direction as well as increased competition, APS system is recommended as a new way to improve processes and therefore achieving cost reductions along the value chain. The main difference of APS system compared to the previous system implementations is that APS system focuses on internal operational processes perspective while the other systems such as YMS and CRS more focus on customer perspective. All systems provide cost advantages in different domains in the value chain. In relation to strategic alignment, APS system like other previous systems fits smoothly in Technology Transformation perspective. Reduced costs in inbound logistics and operation activities will be the direct result of implementing APS enabling AirAsia in achieving its low cost business strategy. The operational environment of an airline industry is complex. Large network in the supply chain, continuous daily operation, and several external uncontrollable variables such as weather condition and government regulations become factors affecting airlines’ performance. Given these complexities, operational planning and scheduling across the supply chain are important factors determining the success of any airline. In order to increase the efficiency of operational performance and manage its supply chain, AirAsia had implemented the ERP system. It is a system focusing on capturing transactions in daily operations and helping AirAsia to save its operational costs as well as to increase the efficiency and integrity in its operation (Microsoft Press Pass, 2005). However, conventional ERP system implemented by AirAsia does not provide flexibility and intelligence required to analyze data for better supply chain management. APS system optimizes AirAsia’s supply chain management. It works as the brain of supply chain activities (Ahmed, 2004) by gearing activities in relation with customers and suppliers requirements. APS system clusters and classifies customer orders, forecasts future fulfilment requirements, checks resources availability and sets order priorities. Moreover, APS system helps AirAsia in gaining competitive advantage as it provides visibility across supply chain. APS system will improve AirAsia’s strategic and operational performances particularly in the inbound and operational activities. Potential Ideas in the Information Technology Aspect In order to gain market share and sustain its competitive advantages to be the low cost carrier in the high demanding environment, AirAsia must develop new ways to manage both customer relationships and suppliers or partners to optimize customer loyalty, supplier relationships, and revenue. The following diagram shows the strategic forces of value proposition of the airline industry, showing that the focus on Supplier and Alliances and customers will drive positive values to AirAsia can achieve. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application will be one of the area of strategic IT implementation that AirAsia can focus to achieve high values to both shareholders and customers. In long term, customer relationships should be fostered for AirAsia to maintain competitive advantage and profitability. When planning and implementing CRM application, management is recommended the following approaches: Customer segmentation is where mileage-based segmentation is inadequate, rather should focused on value-based and needs-based approaches can guide investment decisions and drive greater insight into the needs of high value customers. Whereas CRM initiative development – to differentiate from other competitors, AirAsia should not adopt the â€Å"fast follower† approach to CRM initiative development, i.e. learning from other competitors’ approach (e.g.installing kiosks for fast check-in). AirAsia should implement CRM program in favor of investing in initiatives with a high return, which respond to the needs and desires of their own customers and Organizational design and management is where AirAsia needs to train the employees, empowering them with a complete view of the customer and clearly articulating the employee’s role in the CRM strategy. Conclusion AirAsia as I thought was just a company that provided a low cost carrying airline company. Well that is true but after studying the information and technological aspect of the company, i have come to realize that there is so much more to the company than I realized. The systems in place are simple and efficient and wouldn’t look that impressive but the key of it was the collaboration of all these systems put together is what makes AirAsia what it is. The position of managing the technology in AirAsia is gaining importance in today’s world where technology is making a larger impact in organizations. Having the right person filling the role of the head of technology management can either make or break the company. In the case of Airasia, it is even more important and more difficult to find the right man. This is because Airasia has a set of policies and a vision that sets itself apart from other large corporations or organizations. At times, this flies in the face of conventional wisdom that is adopted at most other places, exemplified by Google’s strict insistence on maintaining employee’s freedom of choice. An organization like AirAsia which considers itself to be ‘special’ and ‘outstanding’, needs a CIO or CTO who is even more special and outstanding. The researchers have outlined some qualities that are needed, and by using examples of situations that have and are continuing to occur in AirAsia, make suggestions on how using these qualities, a CIO or CTO can address those issues.Service Level Agreements are basically agreements between those offering a service and those who are receiving or using that service. Basically it is a form of protection against the unexpected. In the business world, guarantees are very important, not only from the business and operational sense, but also in the sense of upholding a reputation. AirAsia have a fairly solid SLA in place, however it is not without shortcomings. A close examination reveals that there are a multitude of improvements that can be made. Better drafting of SLAs can help simplify work for the company and also allow it to focus more on the core operational issues. SLAs can also be advantageous in driving down costs and creating beneficial partnerships. With the importance of SLAs well established, the researchers have pointed out some areas that AirAsia would do well to consider to help improve its standing in this regard, and suggested some ways in which it could do so.All in all this has been a learning experience for the researchers, who have been able to link the theories learned in class to real world cases and scenarios which have helped create a better understanding of the issues that have been discussed during class. References: McNurlin, Barbara, et. al. (2009). â€Å"Information Systems Management in Practice (8th ed.)†. Prentice Hall Bird, M. (2010). Modern Management Guide to Information Technology. Create Space Anon, 2004, About Us, AirAsia,, Accessed on the 6th of July 2012 B.K. Sidhu, 2012, Tony fernandes speask to Star Biz on Airasia’s future plans, Available from, Accessed on the 10th of July 2012. Margaret Rouse, 2009, Advanced planning and scheduling, Accessed on the 5th of July 2012. Charles Kho, 2005, Strategic IT Initiative, Available from,, Accessed on the 7th of July 2012. Anon, 2002, Management in Technology, Available from, Accessed on the 7th of July 2012. WIT, 2011, Technology enhances AirAsia’s product and service delivery, Accessed on the 7th of July 2012. Bernard.A, 2005, New Roles, New Responsibilities: Today’s CIO [online],

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Better Major: Computer Science or Software Engineering?

Technology powers our world and is deeply embedded into nearly every facet of our lives. The prospect of working with computers as a career is becoming increasingly popular with high school and college students; the number of computer science majors is rising every year, and even younger students are getting involved with programming and building computer hardware. There’s a good reason for this rise in interest. Demand is high for qualified employees in technology fields , and some of those positions offer particularly high pay and other perks. Someone has to invent, build, and maintain all that technology we use on a regular basis, and in the future, you might be the one filling that role. If you’re interested in pursuing a college major involving computers, however, you might be confused by the variety of different programs with different names that are available at colleges across the United States. Mainly, you’ll find a difference drawn between programs that go by the name â€Å"computer science,† and those that are called â€Å"computer engineering† or similar names. As a high school student with minimal experience in the field, you’re likely wondering what distinguishes these two fields, and which major it’s better to pursue. Read on for ’s take on this popular field and its variations. Variations exist in how different colleges and organizations use these terms, so it’s always a good idea to research what a particular major involves at a particular school. You might also find additional variations on this theme; MIT, for example, offers four different undergraduate majors that include computer science. Variations aside, however, here’s how computer science and computer engineering are generally used as specific titles for undergraduate majors. In some contexts, computer science can be used as an umbrella term that covers many different intellectual and academic endeavors related to computers. When it’s used as a specific field, computer science is typically more theoretical than computer engineering. It addresses the ways in which computers think on a fundamental level, requiring you to get to the root of how technology solves problems and meets human needs. If you want to study computer science, you’re going to have to take a lot of math courses — you might be surprised at the amount of overlap between the two fields. Your math studies will be higher-level and more abstract than what’s covered in typical high school math classes. An undergraduate computer science degree can qualify you to become a programmer or software developer, which is a job you can perform in almost any field, from healthcare to government to cutting-edge technology. Eventually, some positions or career paths may require you to get a master’s degree, but even with a bachelor’s degree alone, your career and income prospects are strong. You’re more likely to find computer science as an option at a wide range of top-tier colleges than computer engineering. For example, all the schools in the Ivy League offer majors in computer science, but not all offer the ability to specifically major in computer engineering. Computer engineering is generally considered to be a more practical, less theoretical major than computer science. While you’ll still need to build a strong math background, if you study computer engineering, you’ll spend more time working with actual computer hardware and focusing on practical, hands-on skills for working with technology and solving real-world technical problems. Some computer engineering programs are specifically intended to teach you what you’ll need to know for a career as an information technology professional. IT professionals work in every industry to administer and maintain computer networks, manage an organization’s computer resources, and troubleshoot everyday computer issues. Generally, computer engineering programs fall under a university’s engineering department, and may be grouped with electrical engineering. You’re more likely to find computer engineering (or a similar title) available as a major at engineering-heavy colleges and institutes of technology, or at public colleges that offer a particularly long list of majors. Check with your college for more information. There’s no definitive answer as to whether computer science or computer engineering is the better major. Each has its pros and cons, and each approaches the subject of computer technology in a different way. Each major will prepare you for a slightly different career path, but neither path is â€Å"better.† Practically speaking, you’re likely to find a lot of overlap between these two majors when it comes to what you’ll study. The basics of programming will be the same, and though computer engineering tends to involve somewhat less theoretical math, you’ll still need to build a strong understanding of how the subject relates to technology and programming. Desirable companies like Google are notorious for including difficult, math-heavy programming tasks in their hiring process, even if you won’t have to do that kind of problem-solving on a daily basis in that position. At the same time, practical skills in working with computers are always beneficial when you’re planning to go into a technical field. Rather than asking which of these majors is â€Å"better,† ask which of these majors appears to be the better fit for you — your needs, your talents, and your career plans. If one of these approaches to technology is particularly appealing to you, gives you opportunities to use your talents in a satisfying way, and allows you to achieve your personal goals for your adult life, it’s likely the better choice for you as an individual. Finally, your choice between computer science and computer engineering as undergraduate majors may be less important than your overall choice of college. Choosing a college that’s a good fit for you across the board is tremendously important, and the presence of your preferred major may not outweigh the absence of other features you find important. If you’re worried about your future career prospects, keep in mind that many jobs aren’t tied to one particular college major, and you’ll have time to amass work experience and other qualifications that are equally important. Also, remember that if you attend a competitive and well-regarded college (especially in the field of technology), having that recognizable name on your diploma will reflect well upon you, regardless of the specific name of your major. You’ll also need to take into account the differences between specific computer-related undergraduate programs at specific colleges. Not all computer science or computer engineering programs are the same, and while a certain type of program might seem preferable for you in general, there may well be exceptions. (For example, you might be especially excited to work with a certain professor, and that might influence your college choice.) Besides the importance of fit, you’ll need to consider that your future plans may change after you arrive at college. This is incredibly common — multiple studies have shown that a strong majority of students, perhaps as much as 80%, change their major at least once. If you choose a school that’s an all-around solid match to you, you’ll be better equipped to handle these future changes if they come to pass. Estimating your chance of getting into a college is not easy in today’s competitive environment. Thankfully, with our state-of-the-art software and data, we can analyze your academic and extracurricular profile and estimate your chances. Our profile analysis tool can also help you identify the improvement you need to make to enter your dream school. You won’t always have a choice between computer science and computer engineering at a given college; many colleges only offer one or the other. However, as you incorporate your preferences regarding your major into your college choices, it’s wise to think about which path is a better fit. Here are some questions you can ask yourself to help assess whether computer science or computer engineering is a better choice for you, generally speaking: Again, there’s a lot more to choosing a college than whether the school offers the best possible major for you. Don’t focus too much on your major — it will only be one facet of your college experience and preparation for the working world, and it may very well change later on. Make sure you do your research about what else each college has to offer, inside and outside the classroom. Teaching style, campus facilities, financial aid availability, and the general â€Å"feel† of the campus are all important factors. Visiting the school is a good idea if it’s possible for you to do so, and talking to current and former students provides valuable personal perspectives. Technology is a burgeoning industry, and many high school students today are interested in building a strong background in the computer field. If you’re one of these students, it pays to get started early in exploring this field. Check out these posts from the blog for more information about options you might find interesting: Looking for more help navigating the often-confusing world of college admissions? ’s experienced advisors are here to help you with every aspect of the process. We can even match you up with a current college student who’s interested in computers and can offer specialized advice.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Climate change and H5N1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Climate change and H5N1 - Essay Example This subtype virus was first discovered in 1960 in china. It was then discovered in Hong Kong as a direct transmission of the virus from birds to humans. Recent studies show that the wide spread statistics of the virus is reported over 60 countries in the world. Scientists have been on the look out to analyze whether the global climate change has any risk factors towards the widespread viral situation (Joan,138). Different studies have been reported towards the virus highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N1. Through understanding the causes of the condition mode of spread, findings can be concluded towards the effects of climate change as a risk factor. A number of studies will be analyzed here. Different years will be analyzed also. Data for the different continent spread is analyzed here through the periods when the global climatic effects were felt. The disease influenza is caused by transmission of the virus from birds to humans. The predisposing risk factor is coming into contact with the virus. Research was done over the different continents from January 2004 to December 2009. Throughout this period, the epidemic waves are assessed. Global warming that has enhanced the mosquito transmitting the virus to thrive in different continents. These have been felt largely in the northern America as well as Europe. The excessive heat during the early summer period has seen a huge outbreak of the disease. The mosquito transmits the bird in turn it enters the human systems. The virus has been analyzed and seen to survive more effectively during the cold weather. This in turn leads to its wide spread during the winter and early summer. The global change in climate has cause a different trend in the movement of birds that carry the virus from Asia to other parts of the world. Their movement entails a longer stay in one place, lack of ordinary migration movement in time assessment, the length before stopping

Thursday, September 26, 2019

C-T-E Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

C-T-E - Essay Example The failure to identify, expressly, the conceptual model that a researcher used in his or her study leaves readers guessing within a study’s conceptual context. It is not guaranteed that readers will guess the right conceptual model and they might end up not benefitting from such studies. Clinical judgment entails the use of information observed and recorded from a patient to make conclusions. This process helps in advising patients on how to improve their health. When promoting evidence-based research, clinical judgment involves patients in deciding the best practice to be adopted in intervention while taking into account their values. The situation is another thing that is considered in clinical judgment because different situations will come with unique sets of conditions. Clinical judgment is needed in different aspects in the clinical setting including communication, decision-making, therapy, and diagnosis (Kienle & Kiene, 2011). Continuous critical analysis, knowledge, experience, and practice are needed in the development of clinical judgment. These elements accounts for the differences noted between junior and senior medical practitioners in terms of their level of clinical judgment. Senior medical practitioners emphasize theoretical knowledge less than their junior counterparts do. Previous experience of cases and course of events is central to the level of clinical judgment exuded by senior clinicians whereas it is less important to the juniors. Senior clinicians are more likely to emphasize ethical and moral considerations when making clinical judgment more than junior clinicians do (Nilsson & Pilhammar, 2009). This made Kienle and Kiene (2011) to conclude that clinical judgment can be optimized and professionalized. This explains why new interns need intense supervision while on residency. Some interns have problems during clinical rotations and supervisors have to

French and American Revolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

French and American Revolution - Essay Example Thomas Hobbes believed Man to be ruthless by nature and so people are driven by greed and selfishness because of the instinctive self-preservation of any human being. However, this bad situation can be mitigated somewhat when people agree to give some of their rights in favor of a government they had formed to rule over them in his social contract theory of governance to achieve a civilized society but under a strong central authority with a built-in security feature where people can reclaim the authority given to the State.Based on the above background information and discussion, it is obvious to anyone that absolute monarchies are thereby inherently unstable because the people who are oppressed can revolt at any time wherever their patience runs out.Similarities – both the French and American Revolutions were actually revolted against a monarch who was abusive because of his absolute powers and questioned the right of their kings to govern them without any law whatsoever. It can also be said that both revolutions were greatly influenced by the political thinking during the Enlightenment Period and especially by the writings of Thomas Hobbes and John Lock that had posted the overwhelming idea that authority and by extension, power to rule or govern, comes from the people and only the people can take back the authority they had given when warranted. The cause of the two major revolutions of the eighteenth century was a desire of the French and American people to be free.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Tell u later Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Tell u later - Lab Report Example The company has faced several political issues that have deteriorated its financial position and brand image among its peers. The major competitors of Nokia are Samsung, Apple, LG and Sony. These companies operate in the Android platform apart from Apple. The rapid growth of Samsung has allowed it to reach the leading position which was once owned by Nokia for a long period of time. Nokia has high potential in the windows tablet market owing to the recent rise of windows tablets’ popularity. The business deal with Microsoft has allowed Nokia to have a strong financial background that can be leveraged to finance the future innovations. In order to improve the current condition of Nokia, the company must introduce new technology and innovative products like smart watch or other wearable devices to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals. Nokia Corporation is best known as the manufacturer of mobile handsets in the global market. The company is headquartered in Finland, owns production plants in 8 countries and operates in more than 120 countries (Marketline, 2014a). The company also manufactures network and location based equipments for third party companies. The company owns three major business divisions, the devices and services, network solutions and location based services under the brand HERE. The devices and services section offers mobile phone devices including smart phones and other low end feature phones. The network solution section offers telecommunication solutions targeted at the global mobile broadband industry. It includes 3G, 4G and LTE services along with customer experience management. HERE offers customized GPS and location based services for application developers, automotive companies and device manufacturers (Nokia, 2014). The global mobile phone market has grown significantly over the past fe w years. As of 2013, the mobile phone market earned revenue of $163.4 billion, which represents a growth of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Managing across culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing across culture - Essay Example The aspect of culture can also be used towards supervising locally recruited employees. Samovar, Porter & McDaniel (2009) posit to the effect that understanding the mode of communication within a business culture is an asset for proper and peaceful interaction of business people and the locals. In order to excel in business, it is important to have the right cultural facts about the citizens living in a particular society. This helps business to design its strategies so that they are able to absorb the cultural shocks that may emerge in the course of their activities. Cultural shock is a concept which entails that â€Å"any move from one country to another will create a certain amount of confusion, disorientation and emotional upheaval and this is called culture shock,† (Robbins, 1993, p. 78). ... This reflective report will try to provide detailed information regarding hierarchy, gender roles, communication and relationship, greetings, and social interactions in US which can affect a business venture I intend to set in this country. A conclusion based on the findings of secondary research will be given at the end of the report. Business Culture of United States United States is the third largest country in the world and it is one of the best performing economies across the whole world. It borders with Canada, Mexico, pacific, Atlantic oceans, and Caribbean Sea and its population in the year 2007 was estimated to be 301,139,947 (Moran, Harris & Moran, 2010). There are many ethnic groups in the US and it is believed that the whites occupy the largest percentage of about 81.7% while other groups such as black occupy 12.9%, Amerindian and Alaska 1%, Asian 4.2%, and Hawaii and Pacific Islander 0.2% (Moran, Harris & Moran, 2010). Research has shown that United States has a wide ran ge of cultures hence most people who stay in America have their ancestral connections that belong to another culture. In most cases, their ancestral cultures are in Scotland, Germany and Ireland. A comprehensive analysis of cultural diversity has been done by Geert Hofstede who found that national culture has a major impact on employees’ work related values and attitudes (Robbins, 1993). He found that managers and employees vary on five dimensions of national culture namely individualism versus collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, quantity versus quality of life as well as long term orientation. According to studies, rich countries like the US are very

Monday, September 23, 2019

Lincoln's Assassination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Lincoln's Assassination - Essay Example The Civil War had major implications in the life and death of Lincoln. In 1865, five days after the Civil War ended, Lincoln was shot dead by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at the Ford’s Theatre with his wife.2 The factors that led to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln did not eventually justify its outcome in the preceding days. Though Booth was convicted for his crimes, not many of those other conspirers were. This indeed created lots of perplexity among the historians and the researchers, in asserting who may or may not have been involved in the assassination along with Booth. There were many conspiracies as whether Booth was solely responsible or he was just a tool in a major plot conspiracy hatched by a group of people. However, the idea that the assassination was a result of grand conspiracy of the Confederates arose immediately after the tragic happening. There exist many facts and evidences to support the possibilities of Confederates plotting the assassina tion of Lincoln. ... ain.3 This is mainly because the Proclamation freed only the slaves in the seceded states while others had to wait until the Constitution was amended in 1865. To add up to the circumstances, the proclamation blocked the intervention of Britain or France into the war, for the support of the Southern states, as they did not want to be portraying it as a war for slavery. All these incidences created hatred against the Lincoln’s presidency, personating him as a tyrant. Though the South had hatred for Lincoln and was fighting for their independence, the Confederate’s plot to abduct or kill Lincoln arose after an Dahlgren incident of discovering Union cavalry officer’s concealed papers, which revealed the attempts of Union soldiers to kill Davis.4 When those Dahlgren Papers were distributed as evidences for plot to kill President Davis, it created outrage and disapproval for the Union government across the Southern states. â€Å"In the resulting uproar Southern newspa pers blasted Lincoln and Union leaders as depraved murderers and ferocious criminals and demanded that they be held personally accountable.†5 Booth was suspected as the Confederate’s secret services operative. One of the strong reasons behind it was that, there were coded letters found in the belongings of Booth, revealing his connection with the Confederates. In addition to that, when Booth escaped, he travelled using an underground path, which the Confederate spy network used to secretly transport resources to and fro. Also, the testimony given by George Atzerodt, a fellow Confederate conspirator, implicated that there were also plans to explode the White House for killing the President.6 However, there is also objection to the fact that Booth was solely a puppet in the hands of Confederate. Being a

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Elegy Written in a Coutry Churchyard Essay Example for Free

Elegy Written in a Coutry Churchyard Essay Q1. Discuss Gray as a transitional poet with special reference to ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’. The period 1730-1770 marks the beginning from a movement from one distinct phase of English poetry towards another .The poets were getting gradually exhausted with the neoclassical ethics of clarity, reason, sophistication, and etiquette, its economic wording, ,rationale and wit. In the literary circle can be perceived the advent of The Romanticism which however customarily began with the publication of ‘’Lyrical Ballads ‘’in 1798 which was an aesthetic rebellion against the principle of the fashionable formality of the eighteenth century Neoclassicism. These poets of this juncture- William Blake, Thomas Gray, and Robert Burns are caught in the middle of neoclassic writing and the Romantic Age, are therefore fittingly known as the Transitional poets. Gray belongs to the age (1716-1771) in which he was born as well as heralds the dawn of a new era in poetry.—he bridged the gulf. Though he retained some of the Neo-classical features like conventional poetic diction and forms, he favoured freer forms and bolder language. His poetry preached a return to nature, honest sentiment, though he shared the didacticism of the Neoclassicism. Thus he makes a dignified combination of contradictions . The chief feature of the Classical poetry which Gray inherited was the frequent tendency to be didactic and philosophical. S. A. Brooke aptly points out that Gray’s poetry was too weighted with moral reflections. His sententious moralizing are quite commonplace in ‘’Elegy’’. While glorifying the simple rustic life, Gray warns proud and ambitious people not to laugh at the low obscure social position of the poor. ‘’Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, Their homely joys, and destiny obscure; Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short and simple annals of the poor.’’ Although the humble rustics led an obscure life they might have been far happier than the pompous nobles. With a grave tone of moralizing Gray glorifies Death as the ultimate leveler –the pride of the proficient, the magnificence of the mighty ,the blessing of beauty cannot save a man from the fatal doom. Death and oblivion are the ultimate end of puny human life. ‘’The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow’r, And all that beauty, all that wealth e’er gave, Awaits alike th’ inevitable hour. The paths of glory lead but to the grave’’. The morbid moralizer also upholds the unhonoured and unsung death of the rustics by reiterating that that neither gorgeous monuments nor animated statues connote anything significant as in no way life and vitality can be restored to the corpse. Gray even sermonizes about the dismal and pathetic reaction the mortals display at the time of his departure from this transitory world. Life is to all a contradictory confrontation of contradictions , but nobody likes to quit this world and at the time of death casts a prolonged and regretful l and wistful look behind. Irrespective of his stature everyone is afraid of oblivion of which death is the harbinger. Neoclassical poetry boasts of a conscious use of ornate poetic diction . They were very cautious to differentiate the language of poetry from the naà ¯ve language of prose. Gray also reveals the influence of his age in his apt fondness for rhetorical expression, conventional artificial phraseology and skillful observation of metre. With brilliant use of personification and metaphor Gray at the very outset portrays the nightfall at the village-just as the tolling of the curfew bell announces the death of a person so also the ringing of the evening bell designate the death of a day. ‘’The curfew tolls the knell of parting day’’. What follows is a proverbial use of the figure of speech ‘’Transferred Epithet’’- ‘’The plowman homeward plods his weary way,’’ Rhetorics like personifications and Synecdoche are in brilliant use when Gray employs the abstract to stand for the concrete to emphasize that the persons of ambition and grandeur should not laugh at the simple annals of the poor. ‘’Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, Their homely joys, and destiny obscure; Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short and simple annals of the poor.’’ Gray resorts to ‘’ Interrogation’’ to accentuate the fruitlessness of extravagant display of regret after death—‘’Can storied urn or animated bust Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?’’ Metaphors crowd pell-mell when Gray compares the wasted genius of the hamlet to the brightest gem  confined in the sea-cave or enchanting flower cramped in the desert. Individuals stand for their respective class when Gray surmises that what these rustics could have achieved , if favoured by fortune. ‘’Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Some Cromwell guiltless of his country’s blood.’’ Circumlocution (‘inevitable hour’),Onomatopoeia(‘the lowing herd’) and Alliteration (‘brook that babbles by’)are often utilized to create the utmost poignant appeal. Thus the poem bears the unmistakable reflection of the Augustan or pseudo-Classical school of poetry. The dignity of utterance and the decorum of literary borrowings enhance his neo-Classical temperament. But Gray is a precursor of Romanticism and his Elegy displays how he tended to break with the Classical tradition. Now here is exuberance of  emotion, celebration of democratic impulse and a magnificence melancholy which make the Elegy a brilliant â€Å"reconciliation of opposites’’. Pope in his ‘’Essay on Man’’ speaks of confining the arena of literature only to the sophisticated urbanized people where as the Romantics celebrates the democratic impulse. Wordsworth in his ‘Preface to the Lyrical ballads†(1800) states that his principle is ‘’to choose incidents and situation of common life and to relate or describe them throughout †¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢. Gray also brings out sympathetically the annals of the villagers who led a simple life far away from the frantic frenzy of the sophisticated urban people and who are not governed by jealousy and ambition. With an iconoclastic confidence he equalizes the glorious and the inglorious. C. J. Weber is right ‘’Gray’s unprecedented and courageous act lay in his addressing his elegy to the memory not of princes but of humble workmen buried in now-neglected graves after living lives of hard-handed toil’’. Like ‘The Seasons’, ‘Elegy’ is set in a humble rustic nature background. It is a dignified call to go back to nature. As Wordsworth preferred ‘the incidents and situation of humble life’, the very first stanza makes a whiff of fresh air to blow through the suffocating atmosphere of contemporary poetry, though the Wordsworthian deification of Nature is altogether missing here. If Romanticism is defined as the ‘Renaissance of wonder, in his ‘Elegy’ ,as in his ‘The Bard’, or ‘The  progress of Poesy’ there are glimpses of sentiment and emotion. The poet becomes sentimental when describing the sleep of the dead which is so eternal that the smell and chattering of morning or fresh lively breeze will not wake them up. Instead of catering to dry reason and logic Gray indulges in fancy and speculates that some of these rustics might have in their humble way,like Hampden resisted the oppression of the tyranny or bore in their heart the poetic frenzy of Milton—but everything is lost. The ‘Elegy’ is coloured by subtle sense of melancholy and gloomy note. A brooding sadness engulfs the poem when Gray writes with bitterness that they are left to rot in obscurity in tiny churchyard while pompous fellows rest under marble monuments. The poet laments the ill -luck and extreme poverty of these rustics which hindered the flourish of their genius. Specially remarkable is the stanza XXII where Gray delineates the eternal human impulse of being remembered after death. Gray adventured forth into â€Å"unfamiliar areas in poetry’’ as he brought back to life the use of the first-person singular, for example â€Å"One morn I missed him on the customed hill†¦.’’ which had been â€Å"considered a barbarism by eighteenth century norm.† Romanticism,it can be mentioned , is ‘egotistical sublime’. Thus ‘’Elegy’’ appeared at a point when the change was in the air, but had not completely arrived. Thus Gray’s poetry is landmark in the literary history of England. It is an epitome of the changes that were coming over the literature towards the close of the 18th century. The ‘Elegy’ perfectly illustrates the conflict between the Classic and the Romantic ideas and the ultimate triumph of Romanticism; after all‘’The old order changes yielding place to new’’.

Friday, September 20, 2019

General Characteristics Of Construction Project Manager Construction Essay

General Characteristics Of Construction Project Manager Construction Essay This report comprehensively discusses about involvement of a Construction Project Manager; describing how to manage a proposed housing Development Complex project through proper construction management techniques. This proposed high rise building complex comprised with twenty storied; luxury housing apartments and six basements to accommodate as car parking area, Multipurpose room, Swimming Pool, Supermarket and required utility services such as storage water tank from main supply, water distribution system and Sewerage System. This Housing Development project will be constructed at Colombo-07 adjoining Park Road. Project investor is a wealthy Sri-Lankan Businessman. Presently, I am appointed in this project as a Construction Project Manger. Clients has emphasized me his objectives, to obtain a maximum turnover of the project, implementing Proper Construction Management System. My responsibility is doing so; to archive the project goals in terms of time, Quality, Cost, Safety and Environmental Sustainability as I have conveyed all the way through this report. I have identified significant project management key measures, to use through overall project, such as construction planning and choice of construction technology and Construction methods influence the selected planning, as well as programming and control methods, schedules and progress control using relative software packages available, and also identified key risk elements in this construction project. MAIN BODY Definition about construction project manager The construction project manager is a responsible person to handle overall construction of projects from start to finish. And his duty will be act as the representative of the employer as well as additional consultation to the overall project for the successful initiation, planning, execution and closure of a project. General characteristics of Construction Project Manager Construction project managers engage with particular management activities for mange construction projects in proper way, hence they have the specialize knowledge for project planning, directing, coordinating and budgeting process. As examples for construction project; Commercial building, Industrial building, Roads bridges, Water treatment plants, Schools hospitals, also particular civil engineering works etc. Further common features can be described as; Supervise and coordinate entire project activities or some part of the project until end of the project. Programming; Scheduling and coordinate all design and construction process. When required specialize trade contractors, select and hire them according to the requirements of the project. Project designs, specifications, contact documents and agreement, Construction Project Manger should supervise them very clearly. Always keep well coordination with project owner, architect, engineers, and with other stakeholders directly who are involved in project. Educational Background Generally they are degree holders or relevant reputed qualifications in field of civil engineering, construction management or construction science, also with adequate experience, some of them are appointed obtaining from supervisor level with particular experiences and they have improved their knowledge studying some specific associates degree program such as, project control and development, site planning, design, construction methods/ construction materials, value analysis etc. Most of universities offer master degree programs for upgrade their knowledge as well. As other qualifications, ability of flexible and clear decision for mange and resolve problems, also good understand about engineering drawings and very familiar to operate computer softwares, as well as talent, good communication skill, leadership skill, good relationship with relevant parties, Construction Project Manager Responsibilities: Significant responsibilities and duties are; Observe construction land and study feasibility studies to get understand what type of land required for the project. Prepare master program to the overall project and agree with the employer. Execute a key role in project planning, budgeting, and identification of resources required. Form the teams, developing the objectives, goals of each and allocate individual responsibilities. Managing budget, team expenses and minimizing exposure and risk in the project Manage/ monitor the construction activities progress according to schedule. Keep well communicate with the contractors and Co-ordinate with all parties which involved in the project Financial advice to the employer and cost control. Monitor strictly budgetary guidelines, quality and safety standards. Periodic inspection of construction sites. Manage the progress meeting and kick off meeting as required Obtaining all necessary permits and licenses Preparations for handover process in respect of agreed master program. There are some specific qualitative attributes in project management roles such as capability to plan and organize a team effort, well client management and kindness building ability, ability to motivate, guide and increase morale of the teams, successful time management and logical decision-making skill, ability to handle work force, physical and mental fitness, physically powerful focus on quality. Specific Duties of a Construction Manager As specific duties, CPMs handle multitude tasks, determining and review that what are the necessary to give prior for finish at the beginning. In a large scale project, generally divide several activities segments such as site preparation, including clearing and excavation of the land, installing sewage systems, and landscaping and road construction; building construction, including laying foundations and erecting the structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including protecting against fire and installing electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating systems. Construction managers may be in charge of one or several of these activities. Construction managers must also inspect and review the construction project on a periodic basis to ensure compliance with safety code and building code regulations. What is a Construction Project? A Construction project is a temporary endeavor to create an inimitable product or service. Construction Projects generally include constraints and risks concerning cost, schedule or performance outcome. Every project has a start and an end. The end of a project is defined by the successful complete of the product or service. There are specific traits that all projects have in common. The most distinguishing feature is a specific time frame. Projects must have a clear, definitive objective and activities tasks. Those are planning, organizing, Control and closure tasks and the resources and execution that is the focus of project management. Key Characteristics of Projects: Unique solution. Project boundaries. One-time effort, usually requiring specified resources. Specified start and end dates. Understand of reached the end of the project. What is the Construction Project Management Process? According to the PM4DEV Project Management for Development Organizations, noted in it, Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing a series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date with a limited budget. Because of its nature, coordinating all these activities requires a process approach. This management process specially consists of some specific functions such as, Project initiation, Planning, organizing, controlling and managing resources to complete a construction project successfully within on time, cost and quality. The construction project management process need the direct individual, the project manager, to oversee the construction schedule, the allocation of personnel and equipment and the projects budget. General functions of construction project management usually include the following Project objectives and plans; (including definition of scope, scheduling, budgeting, setting performance requirements) Maximizing resource efficiency through procurement of labor, materials and equipment. Implementing various operations through proper coordination and control of planning, design, estimating, contracting and construction in the entire process. Developing effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts The Project manger is the overall responsible person to direct the construction project management process. Also Project manager is the specific professional in the field of project management. Hence project manager has the ultimate responsibility such as, planning, execution and successful completion of the project. A significant component of the construction project management process is maintenance the project on schedule and within the estimated budget as well, to achieve these goals, Further concerning Project management process can be described as follows; Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost, time, and quality and participation satisfaction. (Refer to Figure 2-1) Figure 2-1:Â   Basic Ingredients in Project Management Specific Benefits of Construction Project Management Process There are few specific benefits of Construction Project Management process, these benefits are very essential for the project success. Preferable efficiency in delivering services Improved/increased/enhanced customer satisfaction Enhanced effectiveness in delivering services Improved growth and development within your team Greater standing and competitive edge Opportunities to expand your services Better Flexibility Increased risk assessment Increase in Quality Increase in Quantity When execute the essential project management strategies, Construction Project Manager Intention will focus to reach the desired goals within specific time and cost, Quality. The Top 10 Benefits of Project Management Essential Factors of Project Management Process Generally Construction projects have specific factors for contribute of project success or project fail. Each factors directly effect with other factors in order for a project to be successful. Those are as follows; Project Team and Team Motivation Project Manager Project Planning Avoiding Scope Creep: Risk Management: Project Closure: Read more: Factors for Project Success | Eight Key Factors to Ensuring Project Success Author: Duncan Haughey, Version 1.0, project .UK Project Management Roles and Responsibilities Particularly strong project management skills are very essential to deliver the project successful of project goal. Hence project management process has combined a set of skills and techniques committed under following tasks. Integrate planning and conduct modify control Define and manage the scope of the project Prepare a budget and manage costs Prepare and track schedules Ensure that the right resources are allocated to the project Manage contracts and vendors and procure project resources Facilitate team and external communications Facilitate the risk management process Also document and monitor the teams quality management process makes the final decision on the issue by transitioning into the role of decision leader to enable the project to continue. Hence above roles and responsibilities should be covered within the project management process as well. Project Management Process According to the PM4DEV, Project Management for Development Organizations, as noted in it, There are nine significant management processes under Construction Project Management to be implemented within role of the project manager. The nine project management processes are: Scope Management Schedule Management Budget Management Quality Management Team Management Stakeholder Management Information Management Risk management Contract Management Above management process have divided into two groups: Enabling processes Facilitating processes This management process phases are interrelated with entire project life cycle. Below given graphic chat will shows management process interrelationship with project lifecycle. Enabling Process Project Life Cycle Facilitating processes Figure 4.1 Project Management Processes and Phases Enabling Processes In the construction management process enabling process include with project scope, schedule, budget and quality. Hence these are should enable to direct some specific objectives of the project and for project success within on time, cost, quality. Scope Management In Construction project management process; Scope management is very critical for project success. Also project scope is the way to illustrate the boundaries of the project. Hence project manager should awareness concerning the scope of the project. Therefore project manager be able to co-ordinate with designers to get update and control the project scope and also acknowledge of project team, as well as the contractors about scope of the work accordingly and should monitor and control work executions too. Further about scope management by below given graphic chart will explain briefly; Schedule Management Schedule management is the development of a project schedule that includes all project activities, hence project manager has to stick on starting and completion dates of each trade packages as programmed, and management team also has to monitor progress of construction and forecast the completion date accordingly. If completion date is not matching the master program, control process is required. As example; assumed some work element unable to complete as programmed due to less progressing or late in starting. If so, it will affect to other work sections too and will delay accordingly. Therefore project manager should advice to allocate additional resources to accelerate the delayed work section to complete it as pre programmed. Budget Management Budget management process is required to ensure the project is completed within the estimated budget. Hence this is the vital responsibility of the Construction Project Manager to handle and complete the project within allocated budget of the project. As well as monitor and control the cost of project at both pre post contract stages are also important part of this management process. Cost Controlling Cost controlling system is critical process of the cost management process, to run the project without commercial backlog. (Refer to Chat 1.02) Chart 1.02 Cost controlling and cost management system Pre contract cost management Generally preliminary budget estimate is prepared based on the clients intended budget and also concerning separate trade packages. As well as Cost plan (elemental analysis), Cost check, Tender reconciliation process also important activities for the cost controlling under pre contract stage. Post contract cost management BCIS slandered form is followed (Elemental Standard Form of Cost Analysis Principles, Instructions, Elements and Definitions 4th Edition) to prepare elementary cost analysis method and gaudiness. Further detail herein for cost control, using S- curve methods; (Refer to Chart 1.03) Chart 1.03 Cost control S-Curve (Programmed) Referring to the above diagram; it shows expenditure and income occurred. This is being monitored regularly, to avoid the cost overrun. . Quality Management Quality management is the process to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs of the beneficiaries. Hence project manager has to monitor and control the quality of work and devlpolp the quality paln. also he has to allocate experienced project coordinator to advice force the contractor to maintain the quality of work. Each work element should be approved by a qualified quality controller or an Engineer prior to handover. Also he has to check the quality of materials and should be strict to the contractor to use standard materials for construction as specified in drawings and specification to maintain the quality of work. Hence all materials should be approved by a quality controlling team prior to use for construction. Some of the most important quality tools are; Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle, Fishbone Diagram, Pareto Chart, Scatter Diagram, Decision Matrix, Flowchart, Stratification, Control Chart, Histogram, Brainstorming, Tree Diagram etc. Facilitating processes This process includes with some specific function such as, Team, stakeholder, information, risk, and contract management, these are facilitating for assist and make possible for the project to achieve its objectives. Team Management Team management is a techniques, processes and tools for organizing and coordinating a group of individuals working towards a common goal, there are few critical factors for success of the team management process, identify the roles responsibilities, reporting relationships and getting the people that will be allocate to the project, develop the team. As well as team evaluation is very important part to identify the staff performance and their skill level and required improvement. Stakeholder Management Stakeholder management include stakeholder identify, analysis, planning and communication. Project stakeholders are very important people for the project success, hence project manager has to mange them in proper way, because of all of them interest to the project success. As example donors, beneficiaries, local government organizations, partners or organizations are the stakeholders of construction project. As well as managing them keeping good relationship between stakeholders and project. Information Management Risk Management Identification of possible risks in advance is important and major responsibility of the Construction manager. The project management team will be able to take necessary actions to avoid or minimize the risks by identifying them early. Safety of work, Economic matters, Weather conditions, political matters etc also includes in risk management. Hence it is important to take insurances for the construction, material on site, employees; third party etc. Contract Management Safety of Work Safety of work is very important at the site to avoid delays in construction. Hence all employees should educate about safety matters and should provide safety equipments, safety wears etc to employees. Required safety instructions should be display on public notice boards. Fire fighting equipments such as fire extinguishers, water, sand, hose real etc should install at site and well trained fire preventing team also should be there. First AID boxes, clinics, Ambulance etc also should available at the site. Problem Solving Identify problems arise from trade contractors is essential to take necessary actions as required to avoid unnecessary delays. As example; Suspended ceiling contractor has to coordinate with MEP contractors to identify his requirements such as voids at ceiling to fix diffusers at the ceiling. Also design problems, practical problems should solve immediately as soon as those arise by using communicating, coordinating and negotiating techniques with related parties Closing and Handover the Project Final inspection should carry out by the Construction Project Manager after completion of constructions of the project. He must re-check all approval for quality of work, testing and commissioning reports, scope verification etc. Then the project is ready to hand over to the client. All related claims, cost proposals and Final payment application etc should be finalized on time.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Thomas Paines Common Sense Essay -- Thomas Paine Common Sense Essays

Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" Thomas Paine is responsible for some of the most influential pamphlets about the colonial situation in the 1700’s. He found himself in the right position and time to make his opinions known through his writing. He was a journalist in Philadelphia when the American relationship with England was thinning and change was on the horizon. Paine became famous at this time for writing Common Sense, as well as his sixteen Crisis papers. Through his particular style of reasoning and vehemence, Paine’s Common Sense became crucial in turning American opinion against Britain and was instrumental in the colonies' decision to engage in a battle for complete independence. Part of the effectiveness of Paine’s Common Sense was his â€Å"plainness.† He wanted everyone, laymen and lawmakers alike, to be able to read and comprehend what he was saying. He did not feel he needed overly flowery speech, in fact, that would not serve his purpose. His desire to stir up the people would not be met if he wrote in a style that took too much in-depth analysis for the common person to understand. Paine said he wanted to write â€Å"so as to bring out a clear conclusion that shall hit the point in question and nothing else.† At the start, Paine explains that in the essay to come he is offering the reader nothing but â€Å"simple facts, plain arguments,† and of course, â€Å"common sense.† He says he asks the reader for nothing more than to read on without prejudice and let their feelings decide for themselves. However calmly Paine approaches the beginning of his work, though, later he will certainly show himself to be quite passionate. He begins his argument with more general, theoretical reflections about government and religion, and then ... ...e of husband, father, friend, lover, and whatever may be your rank or title in life, you have the heart of a coward, and the spirit of a sycophant!† Paine holds that what he is saying is neither inflaming matters or exaggerating them. He continues to use strong words to maintain his point, declaring a government of their own is their natural right, and threatening those that would disagree with him saying they â€Å"are opening a door to eternal tyranny by keeping vacant the seat of government.† Once again revisiting his points he says that the â€Å"last cord is now broken,† between England and the colonies. With his particular style of plain fact coupled with expressive, passionate language, Paine wrote one of the most important documents to the American Revolution. His final call to action begs all lovers of mankind and those that dare to oppose tyranny to stand forth.

Adapting Canada to the Future of a World With Scarce Water Essay examp

Introduction Water is just more than drinking water. Water is the most basic and vital resource that humans need to sustain themselves. Water is used for food production from irrigating crops to actually manufacturing them. Canada like the world, uses water for sanitation, cleaning, manufacturing and daily function. Demand and supply will soon be at a crossroad, as increasing population creates increases in pollution, waste-water and global warming (Baker, 2007). This paper will seek to examine the effects of global warming on Canada’s freshwater system, the effects of pollution and will evaluate how Canada manages its freshwater now and what Canada can do to form policies that will adapt to the future crisis in Canada’s freshwater. Degradation of the Great Lakes The North American Great Lakes are the largest resource in freshwater lakes in the world. They contain 95 percent of North America’s freshwater and more than 20 percent of the world’s freshwater (Barlow, 2008). The Great Lakes play a prime role in Canada because they provide water and livelihood to more than 40 million people and are also a huge economic player in Canada (Barlow, 2001). Unfortunately, the lakes are shadowed by a serious threat because of the rise of global warming. In July 2010, The Canadian Press announced that there has been an 11 degree increase in surface temperatures in Lake Superior. There has also been a decrease in precipitation as a result of increasing lake temperatures. Lakes are reaching their summer temperatures weeks ahead of time (Barlow, 2010). This quick change in temperature adversely affects the aquatic chain of life, leading to algae bloom, inevitably increasing Eutrophication. This in combination with Canada’s growing popu latio... ...esult of our industrial system and pollution, we must have a plan to retaliate. Canada needs to see the impacts and decaying of the Rockies and the Great Lakes. The examination of global warming and pollution on Canadian soil is increasing; the future of water is at risk. Without water, Canada cannot sustain itself. New policies must overtake the old; we must improve our priorities and make water the public good that it is. New water managing strategies must be in place. After global warming, the fate rests in the policy making of the government, we must improve our systems, increase research and re-examine failures of water management, including the extent to which we must enforce water laws. The looming crisis on water does not have to be a crisis if we have a plan to combat it, if we have technologies to aid us in a world where water will one day become scarce.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Unconstitutionality of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 Essay

The Unconstitutionality of the Communications Decency Act of 1996 The U.S. Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996 on February 1, 1996. Title V of this Act was the Communications Decency Act, or CDA, whose main goal was to regulate pornography on the Internet. It was intended to be similar to the regulations that had already been passed allowing the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate indecency on radio and Television (â€Å"Communications†). According to the Center for Democracy and Technology, the CDA prohibited â€Å"posting ‘indecent’ or ‘patently offensive’ materials in a public forum on the Internet – including web pages, newsgroups, chat rooms, or online discussion lists† (â€Å"Overview†). This could have potentially come to prohibit from the Internet some classic texts and other material which, although offensive to some, is protected in print under the First Amendment. It is also important to note that child pornography, which was a reason many supporte d the CDA, was already illegal under laws passed before the CDA (â€Å"Overview†). For these reasons, the CDA was challenged and ruled unconstitutional in a District Court in Pennsylvania, and the Supreme Court eventually upheld that decision (â€Å"Communications†). In what could almost be considered a primary source, David L. Sobel of the University of Florida College of Law outlined many arguments against the CDA. His article in the Journal of Technology Law and Policy (University of Florida College of Law) was written after the March 21, 1996 decision in the Philadelphia, PA District Court but before the case ever went to the Supreme Court in Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union on June 26, 1997 (Sobel). It is interesting to note that many of Sobel’s ar... ...cessed 6 November 2004. â€Å"Communications Decency Act.† Wilkipedia Online Encyclopedia. Online. Accessed 6 November 2004. Sobel, David L. â€Å"The Constitutionality of the Communications Decency Act: Censorship on the Internet.† Journal of Technology Law and Policy (University of Florida College of Law). 1:1, Spring 1996. Online. Accessed 6 November 2004. Stevens, John Paul. â€Å"Opinion of the Court: Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.† Argued: March 19. 1997 --- Decided: June 26, 1997. Legal Information Institute. Online. Accessed 6 November 2004. rics/USSC_CR_0521_0844_ZO.html

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

To Kill a Mocking Bird Summary

To Kill a Mocking Bird Summary Essay Scout Finch is growing up in a hot, tired Alabama town, where there is nothing to buy and nothing to buy it with. She and her older brother, Jem, live with their father, Atticus, the local lawyer, and their cook, Calpurnia, close to downtown Maycomb. They're all related by blood or marriage to everyone in town, so it's a close-knit group to say the least. As our story begins, summer has just started. Scout is six, and Jem is ten, and they have just discovered a boy hiding in their next door neighbors turnip greens.He's a scrawny kid who's name is Dill, and the three become instant friends as soon as it's revealed that Dill has already seen â€Å"Dracula†, which gives him instant credibility. As summer progresses and favorite games become old hat, Scout, Jem, and Dill become obsessed with making Boo Radley come out. Boo Radley lives up the street from Scout and Jem, and legend has it that he never comes out of his house. Any small crimes or mysterious happenings in town are said to be his work, and rarely will anyone pass the house alone at night.Their first raid consists of a dare between Dill and Jem. He must run to the Radley house, touch it, and run back. He finally does it, but only after 3 days careful thought and much ribbing from Dill. Chapter 2 When September rolls around and Dill leaves to go back home to Meridian, Scout realizes that she's starting her first year of school. After her first day, however, she's determined not to go back. After trying to explain the complicated backgrounds of some of the county folks to the new teacher, Scout lands herself into trouble again and again, and is not quite sure how.It should be obvious, she thinks, that offering Walter Cunningham a quarter for lunch is simply not done. They don't take help from anyone, and the reason why he doesn't have a lunch is because he can't afford one. When she tries to explain this to the new teacher, however, she gets her hands slapped by a ruler. When lunchtime finally rolls around, she's grateful to get out of class and go home. Chapter 3 Scout wastes no time paying back Walter Cunningham for getting her started on the wrong foot with the new teacher. It isn't until Jem comes and stops her hat she quits tormenting him in the playground, and she nearly falls over when Jem invites the poor boy to lunch at their house. The day doesn't improve when she embarrasses Walter at the table and is forced to eat in the kitchen by Calpurnia. When she returns to school the day's drama isn't over. Miss Caroline, the teacher, is horrified to discover a cootie in the hair of Burris Ewell, a hulking, angry boy who quickly reduces Miss Caroline to tears as he slouches out of the room, his first and only day of school over.That evening Scout is weary from the day's crimes and begs Atticus not to send her back to school anymore. The fact that Miss Caroline forbade her to read and write anymore is really what's distressing her, and when Atticus strikes a deal with her that if she will concede to go back to school they'll continue reading together like always, she happily accepts. Chapter 4 As the schoolyear inches along, Scout begins to realize that she's far more educated than her peers, and even more so, perhaps, than her teacher.As construction paper and crayon Projects evolve day after day, she realizes she is just plain bored. As she walks home from school there is a huge oak tree that sits on the corner of the Radley lot. She passes it every day without incident, only one day she spots two pieces of chewing gum in a knot in the tree. After making sure it won't kill her she hastily crams it into her mouth, and Jem is furious with her when he finds out, convinced that it's poisoned by Boo Radley. During their walk home on the last day of school Scout and Jem find another treasure in the tree, this time two old, shined up pennies.When Dill arrives for the summer two days later the group resumes their obsession with Boo Radley. They create a play that reenacts Boo's life, and continue with it all summer long until they are very nearly caught by Atticus. Chapter 5 When Dill and Jem start excluding Scout from their plots she begins to spend more time with her next door neighbor, Miss Maudie Atkinson. Miss Maudie is garden obsessed, and spends her evenings reining over her front porch in the twilight. Scout gets a lot of valuable information from her about Boo Radley's past, and the reason, perhaps, why he never comes out.The next day she uncovers a major plot by Dill and Jem to pass a note to Boo Radley. Scout protests but they threaten her and before she knows it she's part of the scheme. Things proceed fairly smoothly until they're caught by Atticus, who forbids them to set one more foot on the Radley property and to leave Mr. Radley alone. Chapter 6 The last night of the summer Jem and Dill hatch the biggest plot of them all (reasoning that, if they get killed, they'll miss school instead of vacation). They decide to try and peep into one of the windows at the Radley house.When Scout (who until tonight knew nothing of the plan) starts to protest, they call her a girl and threaten to send her home. With that, she joins them. Things take a disastrous turn when Boo Radley's older brother, Mr. Nathan Radley, hears them and, thinking they're intruders, fires a shotgun. They barely make it through the fence in time and high tail it back home so they're not missed by the adults. When they step into the gathering crowd to discuss the gunshot Scout is horrified to realize that Jem is missing his pants. Dill hatches a good one and tells Atticus that he won them from Jem playing strip poker.The adults seem satisfied with the lie, and don't suspect them of causing the gunfire at the Radley place. After they slink off, Scout discovers from Jem that he lost his pants as they were scurrying through the wire fence. They got caught and he had to leave them behind or risk getting sho t. Late that night Jem decides to go after them rather than risk Mr. Nathan finding them the next morning and turning him in. Scout pleads with him not to go, but he does it anyway. When he gets back, he doesn't say a word but lies in bed, trembling. Chapter 7Jem's silence about that night lasts for a week. They both start school again, and Scout discovers that the second grade is worse than the first, and the only consolation is that now she gets to stay as late as Jem and they can walk home together. It's during this walk home one afternoon that Jem finally opens up about his sojourn trip back to the Radley place to retrieve his pants. He tells Scout that his pants were not tangled up the wire as he left them but were folded neatly on the fence post, as if someone was expecting him to come back and get them.As they approach the oak tree with the knot hole they discover a ball of twine. After waiting a few days to make sure that the knot hole is not some other child's hiding place, they take ownership of everything they find in there from here on out. The next treasure they discover in there is the figure of a boy and girl carved out of soap. They're carved to look like Scout and Jem. The next prize is an old pocket watch that doesn't run. They decide to write a letter to whomever is leaving them things, but they're shocked to discover the next day that the hole has been filled with cement.When they question Mr. Nathan Radley (Boo's brother who does leave the house) he tells them the tree was sick and he had to do it. Upon questioning Atticus, however, he tells them that tree is perfectly healthy. Chapter 8 That fall Maycomb endures the coldest snap since 1885, and Scout thinks the world is ending one morning when she wakes up and finds snow on the ground. Although it's only a dusting, Jem is determined to build his first snowman and sets out creatively making one out of dirt, and then using the precious white snow to cover it up.That night the temperature dr ops even further and all the stoves in the house are lit for warmth. Scout is awakened in the middle of the night by Atticus, who tells her Miss Maudie's house next door is on fire and they have to get out. They spend the night in front of the Radley driveway, watching the commotion. The men of Maycomb help as much as they can getting furniture out of her house while there is still time, but eventually the whole thing is up in flames. They don't go back inside the house until morning, and Scout is horrified to discover she's wrapped up in blanket and she has no idea where she got it.She almost falls over when they deduce it was Boo Radley that brought the blanket out to her in the night, and she never even knew. 7They're heartened to discover the next day that Miss Maudie is not grieving for her lost house, saying she always wanted a smaller one anyway. Chapter 9 As the school year progresses Scout begins to get teased at school over her father, atticus is called a â€Å"Nigger Def ender† and one night she asks Atticus why people are talking about him. He tells her that's he's taken on a case that affects him personally and because he is defending this man, Tom Robinson, there is a big stink about it in town.Atticus asks Scout that, no matter what she hears, she's not to get into a fight with someone over this case. True to her word, she doesn't fight, even when antagonized at school. Until Christmas. Their Uncle Jack Finch comes down from Boston, which is the good part of Christmas. The bad part is that they all have to spend Christmas day at Aunt Alexandra's house at Finch's Landing. Even worse, their cousin Francis is there, and Scout hates him. Things go smoothly until after dinner when, alone in the backyard with Scout, Francis starts calling Atticus all sorts of terrible names because he's defending a black man.Scout sails in with her fists to defend him and gets caught by Uncle Jack. She doesn't have a moment to tell her side of the story, and mom ents later they're on their way back home. She's finally able to tell her story to Uncle Jack later that night, and he apologizes for jumping all over her when he should've been punishing Francis. Chapter 10 The neighborhood excitement starts up again in February when Tim Johnson, a mangy dog owned by a man on the other side of town, is discovered walking up the street with rabies. The sheriff is called and he and Atticus drive up with a gun to shoot it.Scout and Jem watch in amazement as their father, whom they've never seen hold a gun in his life, takes aim and shoots the dog square in the head from an amazing distance. They're further shocked to discover that he is the deadest shot in Maycomb county, an accomplishment he's never bothered to mention to them since he doesn't like guns. Chapter 11 The day after Jem's 12th birthday finds the two walking into town to spend his birthday money. The downside to taking the route into town is that they have to walk past Mrs.Dubose's house, a cantankerous, bitter old woman who lives at the end of the street. She never has anything good to say to anyone, but Atticus constantly tells the two of them to ignore her foul words and treat her with courtesy and respect. Normally they're able to do this, but today their patience is pushed thin when she starts insulting Atticus's decision to defend Tom Robinson. They wait until they're on their way back home from town and suddenly Jem starts destroying Mrs. Dubose‘s flowers with Scout's baton wand, chopping them viciously off the bush and scattering them across her yard.When Atticus comes home later that evening, he knows he's in for it worse than he's ever been. Atticus makes Jem go to her house and talk with her, and when Jem returns he says that she is making him read to her everyday for the next month. When Monday comes around, Scout goes with him to keep him company, and the days drag by. When she dies a month later, Atticus informs them that Mrs. Dubose was a morphi ne addict who had decided she was not going to die addicted to the drug. Jem's afternoons of reading to her broke her from her addiction, and she was able to die in peace. Chapter 12As summer begins Scout is crushed to discover that Dill will not be joining them. When Atticus has to go out of town for two weeks, Calpurnia decides that she will take them to church with her. Aside from one woman, Jem and Scout are welcomed into the African church with open arms and they're amazed to see how different it is from their own staid church service. They're also amazed to find out that the church collection is going to Helen Robinson, Tom's wife, and the Reverend is not letting anyone leave until they've collected $10, which is what she needs each week to support her kids.Purses are scraped and pockets searched, and finally everyone comes up with enough money and the doors are opened. They also find out that Tom is in jail because he's accused of raping Bob Ewell's daughter, Mayella (who is white), which is why the entire town is in an uproar over Atticus taking on the case. When they get back home from church, they find Aunt Alexandra on the front porch swing waiting for them. Chapter 13 As Scout and Jem begin to question Aunt Alexandra, she tells them she's come to stay awhile (which could be days or years, according to Maycomb's customs).She settles in and the county welcomes her with open arms, although she certainly adds a formidable presence to Jem and Scout's daily routine. She begins trying to instruct the two on how to be a proper Finch (since they come from, in her words, a Fine Family) but both Scout and Jem have no interest in becoming a little gentleman and a little lady, and hardly bother trying to learn. Chapter 14 As life continues on with Aunty in the house, one night Scout goes to bed and steps on something soft and warm and round, which she thinks is a snake.After calling Jem in for a thorough investigation under her bed they find Dill under there, d irty and starving and still his same old self. Scout finds out that the reason why Dill ran off was because his parents just aren't interested in him, and he spends most of his days alone. He spends the night with them, uncertain what the next day will bring. Chapter 15 It is decided a week later that Dill will stay in Maycomb with his Aunt Rachel, who happens to be the Finch's neighbor. This news makes both Scout and Jem very happy. One night they're all relaxing in the living room when Mr.Heck Tate, the sheriff, comes knocking at the door with a group of men, warning Atticus that the local group of no-accounts might try to come at Tom Robinson this weekend. He is being held in the Maycomb jail. The next night Atticus mysteriously leaves the house and on a hunch Jem, Scout and Dill go looking for him in town. They finally find him reading a book on the porch at the jailhouse. Once Jem is satisfied that Atticus is ok they turn to go, but suddenly a line of cars pull up and a group o f men get out and surround the porch.Things get serious when Scout, Jem, and Dill rush into the crowd to Atticus's defense, and although he tells them to go home they don't budge. Scout realizes that these men are strangers, and that they're here to get Tom Robinson. Scout finally sees that she does know one man in the crowd, Mr. Cunningham, Walter's father, and as she tries to make conversation with him the entire group falls silent, listening to her talk about Walter and Mr. Cunningham's entailment, which Atticus is currently helping him out on. Although she doesn't realize it, she makes them all realize that they are acting barbaric and finally it's Mr.Cunningham who calls off the mob and makes everyone go home. Chapter 16 The next morning, Saturday, the whole county begins to file into town to watch Tom Robinson's trial. Jem and Scout run a constant commentary for Dill, explaining the backgrounds and tendencies of everyone that passes. After lunch they head into town themselves to watch the trial. Due to the immense crowd there's no room downstairs but Reverend Sykes, the black preacher from Calpurnia's church, gives them seats in the colored section upstairs. When they get up there and sit down, they see the first witness is Mr.Heck Tate. Chapter 17 As Atticus begins to question the sheriff, who was the one that immediately saw Mayella after she was raped, he immediately begins to find holes in his testimony that prove there is no way that Tom Robinson could have beaten and raped the girl, although at this time the jury and crowd don't really know where he's going with his questioning. All that is apparent is that Mayelle's right eye was blackened and that all around her throat was bruised, as if two strong hands had tried to strangle her.The next witness to take the stand is Mayella's father, Bob Ewell, who is poor, uneducated, and downright mean-spirited. As Atticus begins to question him, it becomes finally apparent to Jem where he's going. He suddenly sees that there is no doubt that it was Bob Ewell who beat up Mayelle and then pointed the finger at Tom. Scout still doesn't see it; however, and thinks Jem is counting his chickens before they're hatched. As she looks at the back of Tom Robinson, who is big and strong, she thinks he easily could have hurt Mayella. Chapter 18Mayella is the next to take the stand, and as Atticus questions her he begins to poke holes in her testimony as well. Finally he asks Tom Robinson to stand up so Mayella can identify him, and everyone sees that his left arm is fully 12 inches shorter than his right, and is therefore crippled and unusable. Scout finally sees that there is no way he could have choked Mayella and blacked out her right eye. It's a physical impossibility. Atticus then begins to ask her if it was really her father that beat her up but she refuses to say, and she refuses to say another word after she accuses Tom Robinson one more time.Chapter 19 The next and last witness is Tom Robin son himself. Tom tells the jury that he went into Mayella's yard lots of times to help her with little chores, and that she was always asking for his help. She once offered to pay him, but Tom declined the invitation. Since that, Tom willingly executed Mayella's chores free of charge. When he begins talking about the night of the rape he tells everyone that Mayella invited him in to do a chore and then started coming on to him, trying to kiss him, and it was her father that saw what she was trying to do through the window.Tom tried to resist Mayella without hurting her, and as soon as he could get away he took off running. He is soft-spoken and polite. But he makes the mistake of telling Mr. Gilmore that the reason he helped Mayella is because he felt sorry for her. And in those times, a black man feeling sorry for a white woman or even saying it may as well be a crime. During the cross examination by Mr. Gilmore Dill begins crying uncontrollably, so Scout takes him outside for some fresh air. Dill cannot get over how cruel Mr.Gilmore (the prosecutor) is to Tom Robinson, and another man is outside the courthouse and knows exactly why Dill is so upset. Chapter 20 The man is Mr. Dolphus Raymond, a local character who is ostracized because he married a black woman. To tone down the talk about him around the town he pretends to be a drunk, but it is really Coca Cola that is in the paper sack he carries around. He tells Dill that people can be very cruel sometimes and that it makes him sick too. Scout knows she shouldn't be out talking to this sinful man, but she finds him nice and fascinating.When they get back inside the courthouse they find Atticus in the middle of his closing statement, and Jem is convinced they're going to win the case since Tom Robinson could not have physically done what Mayella is accusing him of. Chapter 21 When they go home that evening for dinner they can hardly wait to go back to the courthouse because they don't want to miss the verdic t. They wolf down their supper and race back. The jury stays out a long time, till almost midnight, deciding on a verdict, and Scout falls asleep waiting to hear. In total the jurors were out deciding almost nine hours.Finally they come back with a verdict: guilty. Chapter 22 Jem starts to cry, and cannot believe the jury would convict Tom when it was so obvious he hadn't raped Mayella. He and Scout are both in shock. The next morning the Finches all surprised at the amount of food that was left on the back porch from black people in the community, mostly from Calpurnia's neighborhood, to tell Atticus â€Å"thank you† for defending Tom Robinson, in spite of the verdict. The children have a conversation with Miss Maudie who tells them that it wasn't just Atticus trying to help Tom Robinson.They Judge was trying, Mr. Heck Tate was trying, there were lots of people behind the scene trying. They might of lost the case, she says, but only Atticus could have kept a jury out so long deciding. In her mind, it's a baby step towards equality. Chapter 23 The next drama of the day is that Bob Ewell spits in the face of Atticus and says he'll get him back for embarrassing him so badly in court. Atticus passes it off as an empty threat, and does his best to assuage the fears of Jem and Scout, who are very worried for him. Atticus has not lost hope for Tom Robinson, either.There's still the appeal, which he's confident that they have a good chance of winning. As Jem and Scout discuss the lives and ways of Maycomb county folks after the trial, they begin to realize something disturbing about human nature, and the ways people can come up with to just be mean spirited. Jem begins to understand that the reason Boo Radley never comes out of his house is not because he can't, but is because he doesn't want to come out. Chapter 24 As September inches closer Scout is introduced to formal tea time, hosted by Aunt Alexandra, who is on a relentless campaign to teach her to be a lady.As Scout navigates through the social hour she's lost on how ladies can look so pretty and delicate, and yet trap each other with conversation, revealing an aggressiveness you can't really see except when they talk to each other. She decides she feels much more at home in her father's world. When Atticus comes home early from work and interrupts tea Scout knows something's up. She follows him into the kitchen and learns that Tom Robinson is dead. He made a break for it at the prison and was shot by the guards. Atticus enlists the help of Calpurnia to go and tell Tom's wife, Helen who is she.Scout, Miss Maudie, and Aunt Alexandra pull themselves together and rejoin the ladies at tea. Chapter 25 Jem and Dill were able to witness the sad affair of Atticus having to tell Helen that Tom is dead, as his car passed them as they were walking back from swimming at Barkers Eddy. Atticus was very gentle about it, but Helen fainted away. The town of Maycomb was interested in Toms death for about two days, and then moved on to other things. Jem tells Scout that he heard from the grapevine that Mr. Ewell was threatened them again, saying that there was one down and two to go.Jem believes that he's all talk and warns Scout not to breathe a word to Atticus, and not to worry. Chapter 26 As school starts Jem begins high school (7th grade) and Scout rarely sees him until dark. She's in 3rd grade now, and although the Radley place ceases to terrify her she still thinks about Boo, and regrets ever tormenting him the way they used to. One day in class they start talking about Adolf Hitler, and Scout discovers that her teacher, Miss Gates, hates Hitler and feels strongly that his persecution of Jews is wrong.Scout is confused about this, however, because during the summer at the trial she heard Miss Gates distinctly saying ugly things about Tom Robinson, and how this should teach them all a lesson. When she asks Jem about it, why Miss Gates can hate Hitler and yet feel Tom Robi nson's verdict is justified because he's black, Jem gets very upset and yells at her not to ever talk about that trial to him again. When she goes to Atticus for comfort he tells her that Jem is just trying to come to terms with something in his head, and when he does he'll start being himself again. Chapter 27 As October crawls forward a few things happen in town.The Judge finds a nighttime crawler in his yard but doesn't see who it is. Helen Robinson, Tom's wife, starts working for Mr. Link Deas, Tom's old employer, who offers her a job because he feels so badly about what happened to Tom. She has to go a mile out of her way to avoid the Ewell place, because each time she passes they antagonize her. When Mr. Deas finds out about it he goes over to the Ewell place and threatens Mr. Ewell to leave Helen alone. The next day Mr. Ewell follows Helen all the way to work and Mr. Deas has to chew him out again. To Aunt Alexandra, it bodes trouble.As Halloween approaches Scout learns that she will be required to participate in the school pageant, an agricultural themed production where she'll be playing the part of â€Å"Pork†. Her costume is a large ham hock fashioned out of brown cloth and chicken wire. Everyone else is too worn out to come to the night's pageant, so Scout and Jem go alone. Chapter 28 It's a really dark night, but Scout has fun playing the various games the school put on before the pageant. The entire county is there to watch the show, and Scout invariably falls asleep waiting for her part in the play and makes her entrance much too late.She's mortified, but it makes everyone laugh. Because she's so embarrassed about her performance she asks Jem to wait until most of the people have left the school before they begin walking home. As they start their journey back home in the pitch black dark, Jem begins to hear someone following them. At first they think it's their friend, Cecil, trying to scare them, but they begin to realize that it's not. Before they know what's hit them they're attacked from whomever is following them. Scout is crushed under her costume, and then Jem screams.She can't see a thing, and then things grow quiet and she realizes there are now 4 people under the tree. Scout stumbles out into the road, calling for Jem, and then sees a man walking unsteadily, carrying Jem in front of him towards their house. When she gets inside Atticus quickly calls the doctor and the Sheriff, and none of them know how badly Jem is hurt until Dr. Reynolds gets there and informs them that he's got a broken arm. Heck Tate gets there next and tells them all that Bob Ewell is lying under the tree where they were attacked, dead with a kitchen knife stuck in his ribs. Chapter 29Scout tells them all what happened leading up to the attack. The man that carried Jem into the house is still in the room with them, but he's so silent and in the shadows that they pretty much forget he's there. Heck Tate tells them that Scout's costume p robably saved her life, as there is a slash mark through the chicken wire where Bob Ewell tried to stab her. When she gets to the end of her story she realizes that the man who saved their lives, the man who carried Jem home, is Boo Radley. Chapter 30 As Dr. Reynolds starts to set Jem's arm they all head to the front porch, where Boo will be more comfortable in the shadows.Scout leads him out and sits beside him in the deepest shadow. Atticus and Heck Tate get into a battle of wills over who really killed Bob Ewell. Atticus believes Jem did it, and refuses to have the affair â€Å"hushed up† so it's hanging over Jem's head and the county has ample material for gossip. Heck Tate contends that Bob Ewell fell on his knife, and flat out refuses to tell anyone that Boo Radley killed him (which is what really happened). His reason is because he knows all the ladies of Maycomb county would be by Boo's house bringing him cakes to thank him, and he knows Boo doesn't want to be dragged into the limelight.Finally, Atticus agrees to the story, and thanks Boo for saving his children. Chapter 31 Scout leads Boo back into the house one last time so he can say goodbye to Jem, who is still sleeping, and then she walks him home. After he goes inside she stands on his front porch and realizes that she can see the entire neighborhood. She understands that all through the years Boo has watched them grow up, playing games and living their lives. She begins to understand that maybe she and Jem did give something to Boo after all. She gives him a hug and heads back home.