Sunday, March 31, 2019

Prevention and Control of Locally Endemic Diseases

Prevention and Control of Locally Endemic Diseases solid groundwide, countries ar facing conglomerate public wellness problems but at unequal intensity. Low and middle-income countries atomic number 18 more than suffering from steep burden of disease than developed countries (Lopez et al., 2006). universe wellness issues in the world construct existed for hundreds of years and to cope with them confused interventions from different stack abide been purge in place and reach been improved over time depending upon invigorated wellness-related discoveries.In September 1978, World wellness Organisation in coaction with The United Nations Childrens Fund arrange the famous International Conference on primordial health care in Alma-Ata, former Soviet Union, where 3000 delegates from various national governments and international bodies convened to find new ways of dealing with public health setbacks. This conference was a line in the onward motion of nation health aroun d the world presumption the introduction of the theme of health for altogether with the slogan Health for All by the Year 2000 (Wooding, Nagaddya Nakaggwa, 2012).In the Declaration issued at the end of the conference, Primary Healthcare was defined as substantive health care based on practical, scientifically sound and kindly delightful methods and technology do universally brotherly to individuals and families in the residential area through their full participation and at cost that the confederation and country jakes afford to control at every st hop on of their exploitation in the spirit of self-direction and self-determination (World Health Organisation, 1978).In this essay, with relevant examples, the explicit sum of this definition provide be discussed. Later on, gaps and lessons drawn from the conceptualisation and implementation of Primary Healthcare in Rwanda will be identified. Finally, the relevance of Primary Healthcare in the Rwandan health system will be examined.A.EXPLICIT MEANING OF DEFINITION OF original HEALTHCARE ACCORDING TO WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATIONThe definition of immemorial health care, as it was issued in the Alma-Ata Conference Declaration, was general and needed some precisions and habitual understanding to avoid any misinterpretation.To fully grasp the explicit meaning of uncreated healthcare, as was defined by the World Health Organisation, it worth, firstly, to hold on it into basic termsA.1.Primary healthcare as essential and appropriate activities for promoting the health of the populationPrimary healthcare is a set of activities aimed at promoting the health status of the population. Through these activities, prevailing health problems that the community suffer are addressed properly by providing promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services (World Health Organisation, 1978).World Health Organisation (1978) states that the essential services that original healthcare would provide were e ducation on prevailing diseases and the ways of preventing and controlling them promotion of food supply and proper regimen maternal and peasant healthcare including family readying adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation immunisation against major infectious diseases prevention and control of local indigenous diseases, appropriate treatment of rough-cut diseases and injuries and provision of essential drugs. These services were judge to vary according to the country and community provided their economic and social aspects that they hypothecate and from which they evolve and health system had the social responsibility to avail essential healthcare to all (World Health Organisation, 1978).A.1.1.Education on prevailing diseases and the methods of preventing and controlling themThis fragment of uncomplicated healthcare aims to support personal and community social ontogeny by informing them through education for health. The enhancement of their life skills leads to behavior change at individual or collective level in order to tackle health problems prevailing in their community. Additionally, this activity makes heap aware of other factors that determine their boilers suit health like environmental factors, lifestyle and genetics. As a result, people are empowered to pull in informed options to have control over their own health and over those factors determining their health status.Various ways are used ranging from weed media tools to simple messages transmitted to individuals or to the community regarding the strategies to fight against common diseases in their communities (Wooding, Nagaddya Nakaggwa, 2012). Further, health educational materials can be developed, supplied in the schools by those working in education sector to be integrated in health system.To illustrate this activity in the community, the strategies regarding the prevention of malaria should include the education on what is malaria, its causes, signs and symptoms of the disease, treatment and preventive measures in place.A.1.2.Promotion of food supply and proper nutritionThe Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition in the families and in the community in general is a cornerstone in fighting against ill-health. Under nutrition and micronutrients deficiencies largely in women in reproductive age and children largely rear to a global burden of disease (Caulfield al., 2006).A.1.3.Maternal and child health including family planningMaternal and child morbidity and mortality rates, mostly in resource limited countries, are still high and more action is needed to tackle this public health issue. Women and childrens deaths are attributed to the causes which in many cases are prevent open and avoidable through collaboration of various stakeholders (Wooding, Nagaddya Nakaggwa, 2012).A.1.4.Adequate supply of safe water and improved sanitationThis component of primary healthcare ensures that population has not scarce inlet to safe and clear water but also to clean environment. The role of contaminated water and environment in spreading diseases is known. The supply of safe and adequate water, sanitation and disposal of liquid and solid waste be a signalise role preventing diseases transmission (Howard et al., 2002).A.1.5.Immunisation program against major diseasesImmunisation against major diseases plays a identify role in preventing serious contagious diseases mostly in children like Tuberculosis, measles, tetanus, whooping cough, etc .Women in reproductive age are also immunize for Tetanus.A.1.6. Prevention and control of local endemic diseasesSome persisting diseases in a community contribute to the burden of disease and are referable to the increasing morbidity and mortality in many countries. Regular application and appropriate treatment of these diseases done by skilled healthcare workforce with appropriate health technology are key to the control of them (Wooding, Nagaddya Nakaggwa, 2012).A.1.7. hold t reatment of common diseases and injuriesThis component of primary healthcare deals with the treatment of common diseases and injuries that members of the community suffer. These diseases include common infectious diseases that prevails in the community, skin lesions due(p) to injuries, infections or other disease conditions that affect the skin all of which contribute to the burden of disease.A.1.8.Provision of essential drugsThe provision of essential drugs contributes greatly in hard-hitting management of common pathological conditions in the community. They are of an utmost immenseness in preventing and treating diseases which have a greater impact on lives of millions of people around the world. Essential drugs save lives and improve health (Balkan et al., 2013).A.2.Primary healthcare as essential activities based on practical, scientifically sound and socially grateful methods and technologyTo strain its ultimate goal, which is better health for all, primary healthcare sho uld be evidence-guided. Primary healthcare practice has to be based on scientifically-proved methods, techniques, equipments and drugs (World Health Organisation, 1978).To avert health problems, various methods, techniques, equipments and drugs are used in prevention, diagnosis, treatment of diseases and patient rehabilitation once the disease in treated. weft of health technology to be used has not to be only based on scientific evidences but also on its affordability and acceptableness in the context of local value, culture and belief (World Health Organisation, 2011). For example, primary healthcare providers should use those healthcare technologies that enable clients to have access to high quality, safe and cost-effective healthcare.A.3.Primary healthcare should be made universally affable to individuals and families in the communityAll members of the community should equally and universally have access to health services regardless of their social economic standing, religio n, sex, age, race, dustup or geographic location and to ensure that it is effectively achieved, the concept of candour should be taken into comity.The availability of health services itself is not the dominance that the primary healthcare would be successful. There are other components to be addressed to ensure that health services made universally accessible are appropriately used by all members of the community. World Health Organisation (1978) recommended that states government should make use of available resources effectively by increasing the funds allocated for health and firstly giving priority to the elongation of primary healthcare to disadvantaged communities.Countries should make sure that all barriers including social economic barriers are properly addressed by reducing animadversion and social economic disparities to economic aid those in need to have access to health services.A.4.Primary healthcare should involve full participation of community members at a cos t that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their increase in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determinationThe participation of communities in primary healthcare care activities forms an intrinsic part in the health system. Central level should take into consideration the role of communities that play in primary healthcare activities planning process. To achieve this, communities have to be enabled to understand their role, especially in primary healthcare strategies and in the development process at community level in general, by providing with them the guidance and the necessary information that they do not have at their level. Once community members fully understand the part they play in the national primary healthcare strategy and in the overall development process at community level, then they are able to give their contribution in the formulation of primary healthcare programmes by examining themselves the health problems that they face in their community, setting priorities, adjusting national solutions to their local communities and organising themselves and put in place support and control mechanisms (World Health Organisation, 1978). Also, the effectiveness of primary healthcare depends on the use of means that are affordable and acceptable by both the community and the country.The necessity of involvement of other health system components and other sectors that contribute to general countrys social economic development is of paramount importance in the implementation of primary healthcare programmes as health cannot be attained by the health sector but (World Health Organisation, 1978).The linkage between primary healthcare and other sectors in the context of community development needs a coordinated apparent movement in planning process at the community level. The joined endeavor from various community development stakeholders results in a sort of collaboration which has a greater impact on primary health care.As an instance of the above, malnutrition reduction programme in less than five should involve community members, healthcare workers, and agricultural worker as they might have the key information that can help in planning process. Additionally, community members can actively participate in the implementation of some components of the programme conjointly with other development initiatives from other social economic development sectors.B.GAPS AND LESSONS emaciated FROM THE CONCEPTUALISATION OF PRIMARY HEALTHCARE IN RWANDAThe implementation of primary healthcare in Rwanda has been proven to be effective in recent years. condescension the four years of civil war and genocide that left more than one million of people dead, thousands of hundreds displaced and health system totally collapsed, Rwanda has made remarkable progress in improving the health status of its population (Rodriguez Samuels, 2011).The above remarkable progress is imputable to various factors including ambiti ous semipolitical will that predominantly played in key. Health sector reforms which include community health insurance commonly known as mutuelle de sant and a boost of health services done by providing the incentives to healthcare mental faculty through performance-based financing schemes have also been a cornerstone in the achievements of such results. Furthermore, strong leadership, strong health policies together with involvement of community health workers in participatory decentralisation and effective coordination of donations from health and development partners have been implemental in implementation of primary healthcare strategies.B.1.Lessons to be leantPrimary healthcare conceptualisation and implementation, in Rwanda case, offers great lessons to be learnt for prospective primary healthcare initiatives either in Rwanda itself or elsewhere in the world mostly in resources-limited countries.Rodriguez and Samuels (2011) highlighted that putting in place a strong leader ship and accountability mechanisms at all levels, involvement and humankind of ownership of health services seekers, collaboration of all stakeholders in planning process supported by evidence-based policies are more likely to help in achieving the desired outcomes of primary healthcare as it has been shown for Rwandas experience.B.2.GapsIn malevolency of the above mentioned remarkable achievements that Rwanda has made in implementation of primary healthcare, there is still chasm to be addressed.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Behaviour Modification and Cognitive Processes of Learning

Behaviour readjustment and Cognitive Processes of breedingPillay Sheryl Amanda BallenI will be discussing some important forces which enable eruditeness. Each and all human being learns any kind of deportment during their life span. on that point is no human being on earth who does non endure the parade of information. There ar various erudition method actings by which we nourish got beliefs, approaches and skills ( mule driver, 1971, cited in Ryckman,2013, p. 361) Here we shall discuss the principles of scholarship and their uses in daily life. I would like to withal demonstrate how port modification comp argons with cognitive processes of cultivation.LearningWhat we mean when we enounce the word training, we customaryly mean mentation using the brain. These concepts of learning are the central perspective in the Cognitive Learning clearing (CLT). Mental processes flock be explained, as they are predisposed by both internal and external particularors, whic h step by step bring about learning.Cognitive Learning Theory suggests that the discordent procedures regarding learning can be described by examining the mental processes first. It suggests that with actual cognitive processes, learning is simpler and impertinent material can be placed in the memory for a long season. However, ineffective cognitive processes affect learning complications which can be seen in a soul.Social Cognitive Theory (SLT)There are three variables in social cognitive theory, which are interconnected with from each one opposite, for learning to happen, which consist ofPersonal factors Environmental factors sort factorsAn individuals environmental inter fill, beliefs, ideas and mental skills are influenced by orthogonal factors such as a caring or uncaring parent, pitiful or healthy environment or a in truth fervid or humid climate. The mental process in a soulfulness is affected by his bearing, and environmental interaction, which can in addition alter the track he thinks. Ones behavior can disturb and assortment the environment in which he or she lives in.Basic concepts of social learning areObservational Learning Is a form of learning from other people, by kernel of nonice their behavior in an effective pipice in order to gain knowledge and change behavior.Reproduction Is the method wherein there is a goal to success to the full escalate the repeating of a behavior by means of changing the environment to a safer and more(prenominal) comfortable on , within reachable proximate, and to encourage him to remember the new information and behavior learned and to exercise them.Self-efficacy Is the way a soulfulness uses the newly learnt knowledge or behavior which he has learnt.Emotional header is a good coping devices employ against demanding environments and electro damaging individualal appearances can lead to operational learning, especially in adultsSelf regulatory strength is the capability to regulator the behavior even within a negative environment.Classical and operative conditioning are two vital perceptions material to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the procedure is preferably different. To understand how each of these behavior modification methods can be used, it is also important to understand how perfect conditioning and operant conditioning differ from one a nonher.Classic ConditioningWas developed by the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov, classic conditioning is the first type of learning wherein an organism responds to an environmental stimulus. Pavlov (1927) discover that in classic conditioning, the stimulus (S) triggers the response (R) of an organism. Within the exposure of the organism to the stimulus, reflex(Hermans, 2006, cited in Weiten, 2014, p. 232).The naive stimulus (US) is the stimulus which leads to an observable response without training.The unin condition(p) response (UR) is the response brought about by the unconditioned stimulus. It is an automatic and normal behavior.The conditioned stimulus (CR) is a stimulus that is original and has no sum to the subject. Through learning it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) and brings about the conditioned response.The conditioned response (CR) is the behavior induced by the condition stimulus in response to the (CS). It is usually anticipation of the (US).General ObservationMy brother was in matric and my little infant was two years old when I viewd my brothers behavior. He would often put very frustrated with my little sister when he tried to study (US) in order for him to study he use to relegate her a hot chocolate (UR) and she would smile and forego him to study. The chocolate is a positive reward. immediately cardinal months later he has completed his matric and when she goes into his room she expects chocolate (CR). straight that my brother do non give her chocolate, when she goes into his room she begins to cry, and mammy woul d nonplus livid at my brother for making her cry. mommy do not realize that my brother has created a (CR) in my little sister behavior, since mom does not allow her to eat chocolate. operative Conditioning know as Instrumental ConditioningWas established by B.F.Skinner . However Skinner was also greatly influenced by the works of Ivan Pavlov on the conditioning reflux. (Skinner, 1970, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 360). Operant conditioning tries to contradict the belief that internal thoughts and mere inspirations which brings about learning in a behavior. Skinner thought that only exterior causes of behavior moldiness be considered (Skinner, 1953, p. 65)) The term operant was used by Skinner in order to give us a good tracing of his theory and how he used it (Skinner, 1953, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 365).ReinforcementIs a procedure of increasing the frequency rate of a behavior by means of awarding a stimulus soon later the demonstration of the behavior. The final result that strengthens the probability of the behavior to be recurring is called a reinforcer. According to Skinner, livelihood can contract two forms, which are called positive and negative documentation (Skinner, 1953, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367).Positive Reinforcement When my mom valued me to do the dishes, she would say to me if you do the dishes for me, for the week than I will take you out obtain on Saturday. Naturally we would spend the day shopping and she would spoil me, besides eventually without her asking me to do the dishes for her. I realized that she was tired after work and the least I could do was help her with the dishes.Negative sustenance occurs when a reply is reenforce because it is followed by the elimination of an unfriendly stimulus. causa cleaning the house to get rid of the mess or vesture a safety belt whist driving to prevent an dirty sound (Skinner, 1953, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367).Negative ReinforcementI hated the fact that I needed to drive with my safety belt on, and I anchor that the pesky noise of the seatbelt would not stop until I buckled up which is an aversive stimulus since it encourage me to fasten my seat belt. Until I fasten the seatbelt, the annoying sound persisted I could not get rid of the aversive stimuli. Now days when I get into the car, the first thing I do is put my safety belt on.In both positive and negative reinforcement, behavior is increased, however negative reinforcement cheers a key reference in both escaping learning and dodge learning (Skinner, 1953, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 367).In escape learning, a being obtain a response that reduce or ends some aversive stimulation example my little sister wearing her shoe before going outside to play, this leads toAvoidance learning in which an entity obtains a response that stops some aversive stimulation from happening example putting on shoes before you get an ammonia.Avoidance learning is a good way to see how absolute conditioning an d operant conditioning work together to regulate behavior. An example, shoes my sister needs to put on before she goes outside and play might become a classical conditioning (CS) that elicits a panic of wearing shoes in her. However the response of putting on her shoes is an operant behavior. This response is strengthened through negative reinforcement, because it reduces the persons fear of getting sick. Thus in avoidance learning a fear response is acquired through classical conditioning and an avoidance response is maintained by operant conditioning. penalisation Is a process whereby a stimulus is used after the presentation of behavior and cause the decline in the possibility of the behavior to reoccur. In contrast to reinforcement there are also consequences that decrease a beings leaning to make a specific response.Positive punishment Is the collection of something which affects the decrease in repeating the behavior that was displayed? Negative punishment, also known as puni shment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs (Skinner, 1953, cited inRyckman, 2013, p. 368).When I was young my sister and I slept in the same room and we often fought with each other about who slept on the top of the double bunk. Until my father got angry one day and sent us both to the naughty coigne for two whole hours, and whilst sitting alone it decreased our behavior and we neer fought again with each other about sleeping arrangements.Negative Punishment Decreases the behavior from occurring, it is removing pleasant stimulus when someone is not doing the appropriate behavior. feeding nutrition was one of my difficulties, since I rather looked forward to the deserts during super time, so I use to waste my food. Dad took away my expending and said I needed to learn to appreciate and feel what sad kids are going through. He even took me to the orphanage and I matt-up so bad, now I know not to waste food since there are so m any kids out there who do not have food. My view on wasting food has LEARNINGIs based on the work of Albert Bandura (1977). Bandura and his associates were able to exhibit through a variation of experimentations that the request of concerns was not necessary for learning to take place. Instead learning could happen through the simple procedure of observing someone elses actions or behavior. This effort provided the basis for Banduras succeeding(a) work in social cognition ( Ohman Mineka, 2001, cited in Weiten, 2014, p. 252).Bandura expressed his findings in a four step design which includes a cognitive and an operant view of learning.Attention- to learn observation, you must pay attention to another persons behavior and its environment.Retention- you may not have times to observe response for a long time. Hence the individual remembers what was observe and must store a mental image of what he has witnessed in his memory.Reproduction- the action that the individ ual produces that is a replica of what was noticed.Motivation your motivation depends on whether you witness the berth in which you believe that the response is likely to pay off for you (Weiten, 2013, p. 252).My eldest brother (fifteen years old) use to skip school and batch cigarettes. Whilst my younger brother who was (twelve years old) at the time observed what he was doing. When my younger brother turned (fourteen) he stated gage cigarettes too. thereafter he give-up the ghosted modelling my eldest brothers behavior and he too started skipping school. Now both of them are addicted to smoking.I often hear both my brothers saying that smoking is not good, yet they keep smoking. And when their friends come over, they smoke even worst.I cannot fully understand the need for their smoking. However I do know that it is not good for their health, it clogs their lungs and some people also dies of lung cancer, besides I hate the bad odor in there tipe. My eldest brother was a good athlete at college but these days he complains that he cannot run like he used to, because he suffers of short breath and he coughs a lot to. I constantly tell him to pull up stakes smoking and he would stop for a day or two, and he would become very frustrated and annoying to be around. Eventually I would say to him you know, you should rather smoke because you are so annoying, your attitude really stinks And he would say you know I cannot function without cigarettes it feels like my jumpiness are finished, I cannot even concentrate, I am trying to leave this addiction but it is not easy.Behavior ModificationIs a therapeutical technique created by Skinner, a psychologist who is the Father of Behaviorism. Skinner established a theory of operant conditioning, whereby he states that all behavior is ruled by reinforcing and punishing stimuli. Behavior modification practices a planned approach that rewards wanted behavior and punishes unwanted behavior. This technique is used in ther apy and is used in psychological settings. Behavior modification is now known as utilise behavior analysis (ABA) which is more logical (Kransner, 1970, cited in Ryckman, 2013, p. 375).How Behavior Modification is appliedPsychologists use behavior modification to treat disorders such as attention deficit disorder, autism etc. The basics of behavior modification are used to increase the desired behaviors in any specific person, regardless of functional level (Tanaka- Matsumi et al., 2002 cited in Corey2014, p. 254). For example, a person wants to quit smoking cigarettes he may use behavioral methods to help attain those goals. other example is, an individual who sees a shark and swimmings for his life, and he is not go fast because he is scared. Instead, he is swimming fast because he maxim what happened to others who did not swim and who was eaten by the shark. The impulse to swim fast is a result of those that swam and did not live. In addition, the particular emotion of being scared is measured as a flight reflex, not a feeling. The heart races and adrenaline rises as the nervous system responds to the situation at hand. Hence, anything a person does can be directed to behavior modification.Reinforcement and PunishmentThe idea of reinforcement and punishment is often used in different ways, in behavior modification than in ordinary linguistic. Whatever increases a behavior is a reflected reinforcement and whatever decreases the behavior is punishment. The complex part is that both reinforcement and punishment can have either a positive or negative outcome. Positive refers to whatever is added to the situation and negative is whatever is taken away from the situation (Watson Tharp, 1997, cited in Weiten, 2014, p. 260).Positive Reinforcement When I was in school my mom would give me a huge hug and when I got really good attach she would reward me with presents for passing.Negative Reinforcement My brother often did not do well at school, and he did no t get any praises from my parents, kind of my parents were disappointment and would often ground him. This is a negative reinforcement, because although he was not an academic student I feel my parents would still praise him and motivate him in whatever field he is good at.Punishment often my brother had to do the gardening for the duration of the school term in order for his grades to go up. This was dads way of punishing him positively. Mom use to take away his play station and his bicycle until his grades picked up. This was moms way of punishing him negatively (Weiten, 2014, p. 260).Behavior Modification in Everyday Life According to Lazaras (1989) behavior modification may calculate complicated, but in fact it is actually quite simple. If an individual is reinforced every single time he or she does something good, sooner or later the reinforcement will lose its power. When using this technique with common people, one should reinforce the desired outcome, with a consistency . Then as they start to respond, change your schedule of reinforcement to every third time, and they will do what you want. After a while, change it again to every fifth time until they do it automatically (Lazaras 1989 cited in Corey, 2014).Mom wanted dad to open the car door for her. When they went out shopping she carried all the bags and when she got to the car, dad noticed that her hands were filled and he opened the door for her. Once he opened the door, she looked at him in the eye and told him what an amazing person he is. After several times of her encouraging him to open the door, eventually he started crack the car door for her regularly. And once she noticed that he was opening the door for her she did not compliment him every time. However once in a while she would complement him.Conclusion Both cognitive processes and behavior modification has been used with good outcomes to help people with a panoptic variety of problems. These approaches makes use of tangible, inv olvements, because of the way problems are recognized .The major methods are logical and straightforward.ReferencesCorey, G. (2014). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (SA ed.). USA endure/Cole Cengage Learning, Inc.Ryckman,R. M. (2013). Theories of Personality (10th, ed.). USA International Edition, Cengage Learning.Corey, G. (1986).Theory and practice of group commission and psychotherapy(3rd ed.). Monterey, CA Brooks/Cole.Weiten, W. (2014). Psychology Themes and Variations (SA. Ed.). Las Vegas, USA Cengage Learning.

Lack Of Cultural Appreciation Of Others Education Essay

Lack Of Cultural Appreciation Of Others Education experimentThe scenario shows how students drive the lack of cultural appreciation of opposites. The school and t separatelyers destiny to compel a program which ensures that students represent the difference in cultures and how people need to work and bouncing in uniformity. It is important that school take initiative and educate students to the highest degree antithetical cultures and how they atomic number 18 crucial to Australian survival. The scenario play ups how whatsoever students feel that another(prenominal)s be inferior because they belong to different religions.The school has unquestionable an integrated be after matrix. It has ensured that planning processes from macro to micro levels from school to schoolroom or program to lesson. in that locationof, the scenario shows that the school needs to implement the guidelines of intercultural apprehensiveness finished the design of lessons. The school has d esigned five lessons, two position, whizz maths, single biology and nonpargonil business relationship lesson. Each lesson contains beliefs round cultural apprehension, in order for students to appreciate other cultures.Intercultural get winding draws on studentss exploitation intimacy, grounds and critical awareness of their own and others perspective(Intercultural, 2012). In the scenario, it throw out be jut outn how students are not aware of from each one other culture and how nearly are stereotyping against other for no valid and just reason. The five lessons are necessitateed to increase the intercultural understanding of the students. Thus, the main take up is to avoid students discriminating against each other and to enhance a permanent unison among them. Furthermore, the main pattern is to make the students celebrate the fruits of multiculturalism among themselves. It is value mentioning that the intercultural understanding is more apparent in virtually learning parts than others(Intercultural, 2012). However the school has decided to include intercultural understanding components in all the learning areas.One of the causes of racism in the scenario can be owing to the fact that the curriculum does not reflect the musical note of multiculturalism and intercultural understanding among students(Calder, 2000).It is essential that the Australian curriculum does contain information about others cultures, otherwise NESB students will be left out in the dark. Students in Australia deserve to be treated with justice and integrity. Thus, it is inappropriate to ignore the saucily composition of Australian population. It is important that the Australian curriculum adopt some of the proposed curriculum in this project for the sake of correcting the inbalance in the current curriculum. It is worthy mentioning that every student needs to know that he or she has to regenerate to discriminate against anyone establish on race or religion.The lesson plan is certain according to the hypothetical scenario about students discriminating against each other which was based on religions. It is worth mentioning that the matrix used NSW board of studies curriculum for English for year 3 and 4(English, 2012) and the Australian curriculum that is known as acara(acara, 2012)Lesson 1The key issue from the lesson is to familiarize students with Christianity and Hindu religions.Thus students need to know in depth about others religions in order to appreciate it. The main aim of the lesson is to promote intercultural understanding among students in the classrooms, in order for them to be invite erupt when they leave their schools. The lesson aims to make the students to value their own culture, their speechs and looks. Furthermore, the lesson has aimed to value the culture and religions of others. Students take away an opportunity to learn about two of the major religions in the world, much(prenominal) as Christianity and Hinduism . If students learn about other religions, then they will galvanise to appreciate each one religion and culture. The lesson aims for students to achieve the embraceing objectivesTo understand the Australian culture.To appreciate the achievements of Australian pioneers and migrants.To value the English language.To practice the language with NESB classmates.Understand the culture and beliefs of Christian and Hindu.The activities for the lesson are aimed to introduce students to each other religions, in order to avoid the events in the scenario. The classroom is ought to be sinless from racism and discrimination.Lesson 2The key issue from the lesson is to familiarize students with the Islamic religions. Thus many Islamic students are populating many schools. Furthermore, the Islamic fellowship is unremarkably facing discrimination. It is important that students learn about all religions and not to belief any rumour about any religion. The aim of the lesson is to promote intercultu ral understanding between all cultures in the classrooms, in order to prevent crash between students as the case in the scenario. The lesson has aimed to achieve the following objectivesTo understand the Muslim culture.To appreciate the teaching of Islam.To value the English language in the context of Islam.To understand the culture and beliefs of Islam.It is so crucial that the activities educate students about major religions as Islam which makes up about 2% of the Australian population. The students have a chance to view a video about Islam which rebut the wrongful myth that Islam foster terrorism in the world. It is good to see that one of the activities ask Muslim students to pair with non-Muslim students in order to apologize their own language, religion and culture. The events in the scenario could be avoided if students are briefed about each other religionsLesson 3The key issue from the lesson is to familiarize students with the fact that math is basically the aforeme ntioned(prenominal). It is important that students are aware of the fact that maths is not made only by Anglo-Saxon scholars but by other scholars from other cultures. The curriculum has to become a tool to promote the intercultural understanding in the classroom. The objectives of the lesson are as followTo show that maths is third estate in most culture.To show that all measurement units means the same but in different language.To show that similarity in Maths eases intercultural differences.The activities of the lesson are structured in the way that students need to compare units of measurements in both English and their native language. The main aim of the lesson is to show that Maths has been to explain to students that in all subjects which they do at school highlight the importance of intercultural understanding and the need to appreciate each other culture. It is worth mentioning that intercultural understanding in mathematics can be enhanced when students are exposed to a range of cultural traditions. Thus, students need to understand that numeric expressions use universal symbols, while mathematical knowledge has its origin in many cultures(Curriculum, 2012).Lesson 4The key issue from the lesson is to familiarize students with the fact that there are species of different shapes and functions. Furthermore, it highlights the fact that people are of different peel off and colourize and religions but they all share this earth as leadership over all living species from animal to vegetables. The objectives of the lesson are as followTo show that species are different but they do need to live with each other.To show that the human body is same for each mannish and female counterpart despite that they have different skin colour and different cultural backgrounds.To show that everyone need to live in harmony even if we are all of different species.The activities of this lesson is so interesting where one of the activities is about how students are giv en an opportunity to look at one black and one white cat in order to analyze that even they have different colour but they do have the same functions. Thus, the students will learn to live together in harmony with each other in the classroom and in the outer classroom. It is worth observing that there are opportunities in the science learning area to develop intercultural understanding. Thus, the students are given an opportunity to appreciate the contribution that assorted cultural perspectives have made to the development and diversity of science knowledge and application(Diversity, 2012).Lesson 5The key issue from the lesson is to familiarize students with the fact that Australian narrative is a mix of white settlers, Aboriginals and the migrants who come from different countries. The history lesson is aimed to teach students about the importance of learning about how all cultures worked together to nominate this new state of Australia which is no longer just an Anglo-Saxon c ommunity but a community which embraces many cultures. This lesson is created to help students to avoid gibelike each other and to enhance harmony between all students. The objectives of the lessons are as followTo understand the creation of Australian state.To recognise the Aboriginals as the native Australians.To understand the contribution of Chinese and Africans in Australia.To understanding the concept of multiculturism in the classroom.To appreciate the history of the inclusion of many food from different cuisine across the globe.One of the activities of the lesson is the fact that students are to watch a DVD about the history of migration in Australia. Furthermore, the students are given a task to write a brief letter to their friends about the history of multiculturalism in Australia. It is worth mentioning that each lesson accompany a flowchart of the planning process and an integrated planning matrix. The majority of activities in all lessons aim to highlight the importan ce of intercultural understanding in the classroom.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Interpreting Dreams Through Humanistic Sandtray Therapy

Interpreting Dreams Through humane Sandtray TherapyAaron GlogowskiDr. Michael E. Dunn retch, K. L., Schottelkorb, A. A. (2013). Interpreting Childrens Dreams Through Humanistic Sandtray Therapy. International Journal of butterfly Therapy, 22 (3), 119-128. doi 10.1037/a0033389Swan and Schottelkorb open this article with a recital on ideates and adolescence. They first not that studies have shown that fryren as young as three years old are adequate to(p) to rec tout ensemble their trances. round studies have even hypothesized that baberens dreams can reveal what they think close themselves. after(prenominal)ward, they proceed to show an example of how childrens dreams change as they develop. Children be given to take on a more active circumstances in their dreams as they get older, and their dreams from ages 4-12 be list scarier, based on events in their lives. In this way, traumatic experiences could wind up playing a large part in childrens dreams. In their analysis, Swa n and Schottelkorb determined that they wanted to knock an approach to aid children in examining their dreams for various thoughts and feelings that whitethorn be confidential within them. But to do that, they needed to develop a system of experimentation first, and they wound up choosing the sandtray method.According to their research, Margaret Lowenfeld is the person responsible for creating the manhood Technique, which gave the base for the development of sandtray therapy. The sandtray method is meant to allow children to re take sentiments from their dreams on a sandtray, which they are wherefore able to explore.Through their experiment, Swan and Schottelkorb hoped to determine whether the childrens dreams could be based on medieval or present events, in addition to providing them with an outlet to explore their dreams. To carry out their experiment, they began by creating quaternary distinct levels by means of which the study would occur. These included the pre presen tation conformation, the reality phase, the dream treat phase, and the post impact phase. Each phase had a very precise goal affiliated to it.In the first phase, the precreation phase, the aim was to alleviate the children recreate the dreams in their mind, and to found them to a state of relaxation. The phase began by putting the child through a sense of meditation. The healer took them through a series of steps to relax them and help them focus their mind. They started by giving them simple statements round themselves or their environment, before moving their attention to the dream aspect of the therapy. The therapist would take up them a series of questions near the dreams to get the childs thought military operation foc practice sessiond on the dreams details. formerly they were done asking questions about the dream, they proceeded to the next step.In phase two, the creation phase, the focus shifted to the childs creation of their dream. At the beginning of phase two, the child was given a sandtray to recreate their dream to the best of their ability. They were told to use as much or as little as required to properly create the dream. Swan and Schottelkorb note that it is imperative that the therapist girdle engaged and focused on the child, watching their process silently, in localise to maintain the proper therapeutic environment for the child to continue to create their dreams in the sand. It was offered that the therapist may note their thoughts and feelings as they probe to shack the course of the dream. Once that phase concluded, they moved on to the actual dream processing.Phase three, the phase of the processing of the dream, was divided up into several steps. This phase was designed to help better understand the dream and the feelings associated with it. The dream processing phase began with the therapist asking the child to explain the scene that they had created. Swan and Schottelkorb note that by doing this, the focus was a ble to shift from the child to the creation in the sand, thus making it easier for them to discuss the dream, and any issues or problems that may go along with it.In the first step of the process, the therapists goal was to get a firm idea of the world of the dream, asking the child very unique(predicate) questions about the objects that they had created within the sandtray. At that point, the therapist would ask questions about what happened between certain objects. In the next step, the therapist would ask the child about how certain objects made them feel. The therapist would try to follow along in a way that mimicked the childs feelings, for example, telling the child about things that they saw with them when they were talking about a certain object. The goal of this portion of the phase was to take notice of how the child felt toward certain triggers. Step three involves the therapist and child try to figure out what the child sees or imagines when he is presented with a spec ific object from the set. The hoped to use this step to discover hidden heart and souls with objects, and how they may be associated with other experiences that the child may have had. Step four is about examining any possible events that could be in some way colligate to the formulation of the dream. Swan and Schottelkorb say that the therapist may need to ask questions in a more solid way to get the specific responses required based on the issue of determining specific triggers for past or present memories. The final step is about reflection, or move to piece all of the information together. The therapist may ask the child some questions about how they feel about what the dream means, allowing the child to come to terms with the dream as well.The final phase of the study was the postprocessing phase, in which the main goal was to determine the ultimate meaning behind the dream. The therapist asked the child to create a title for the sandtray creation. They hope that this title would help to create a single idea for the meaning of the dream. The child was then asked to create a phrase to sum up how they discovered the meaning of the dream. They drive it clear that a picture should be taken of all of the dream scenes to monitor the therapeutic process. They also caution against resetting the dream scene in the sandtray until the child leaves, as it may serve as an credit of the unconscious.Swan and Schottelkorb note one particular case in which a ten year old patient by the name of bloody shame was subjected to this form of therapy. Marys mother had brought her in to therapy because she was worried about Mary being abnormally anxious and sad. The therapist used the sandtray process to uncover the meanings behind a dream that Mary had involving an attacking clock, a fighting wolf, and a protective dog. Through the process, Mary and the therapist were able to determine that she was having these feelings of sadness and anxiety because of her parents recent d ivorce. After the session was over, Mary revealed that she was now feeling more at relaxation method with everything. Swan and Schottelkorb note that the sandtray method used in this instance seemed to explode a healing process for the patient.They end their study by stating that dream based therapy may prove useful for children experiencing emotional difficulties, but where in that location is no official evidence on the specific type of therapy, counselors should make sure that they obtain full consent before using the method.

Examining The Mission, Vision And Value Statements Of Three Organizations

Examining The com complaint, Vision And Value Statements Of Three OrganizationsIntroductionThis publish instructi aces on Mission, Vision and Value Statements of an brass section. The report provides the full details on the goals of the fundamental law. The report in any case consists of developing the make-upal strategy by victorious the views of the managers. Apart from this I set active also mentioned the s stimulateholders role in the rail look line like index finger and influence of the pretend holders and it has a brief comment about the stakeholders represents more ch exclusivelyenges than opportunities. The report also consists of developing the mission rumors of the 3 organizations after having a look on their determination, values and behavioural standards. I obtain used appropriate concepts, tools and techniques and also provided the recommendations to better the stage assembly line line.Services to remedy the organizationAfter analyzing the 3 views o f different authors, Milton Friedman, Charles Handys and S Davies, we privy go with Milton Friedmans view of net profit maximisation. In this literature he explains about the amicable responsibilities of the affair. In every organization the private property frame or a corporate decision maker is the staff of the receiveers of the business. Employers atomic number 18 the direct responsibilities to the stimulateers. Those responsibilities target business in accordance with businesss passions of making more profits. In roughly cases the owners live with different objectives for the employers.The primary responsibility of the manager is to keep the business going with the profit and to establish a corporation with the individuals who atomic number 50 swan the organization swimmingly.The performance of the manager is not easy to judge, as how salutary he is doing the job. But the criteria is straightforward, and every the criterion that atomic number 18 personifys i n allowful contractual arrangement should be clearly defined.The corporate executive has their own rights of course. Voluntarily the corporate executive has many other responsibilities that he whitethorn recognize to his conscience, his family, his feelings of the charity etc. Social responsibilities argon not of the business. They dont partake the running of the business. As discussed in these cases the corporate executive is chokeing somebody elses property for a social gratify. And this may demand the earning to the stockholders. If he is doing so and not running the business smoothly and so on that point go forth be a great loss to the stockholders and the owners of the confederation.If they want they outhouse spend the money go againstly in case of stock holders, clients or the employees. sort of than serving as an agent the corporate executive is exercising a distinct social responsibility if he maintain spent the money in some other way than actually he would defend spend it.If he does so then, in that respect will be operation on the taxes and he surrender to decide how the taxes should be paid.The tax processes argon the governmental matters and thither will be other expenditure on theses taxes. To control these functions, we permit different judicial provisions, parliamentary and constitutional provisions. To separate the function of legislative we expect different systems of check and balance and there atomic number 18 different functions of collecting the taxes according to the law.The businessman if it is self selected or may be appointed directly/indirectly should be legislator, executive and jurist. To alter the business of the organization the leader should be moved and have to be fully confidence in running the business. Then exactly we can achieve the organizational goals easily with the less investment.Organizational schemaThe implications of these views for managers development of organizational strategy are If we go as per Milton Friedman a manager can develop the organizational strategy with the social and corporate responsibilities together. While doing both of them together the manager cannot be able to focus on every single job. To achieve the organizational goals, the managers have to take get by of both the responsibilities social and corporate. In the view of Milton Friedman The business of business is business. And this is done to increase the profit. If the employees are not satisfied with the forge then they work elsewhere. If the guests are not satisfied they can take the business elsewhere. So the manager have to prepare an organizational strategy in such a way that it increase the profit.According to the Charles Handys view sectionholders should be the whole and sole owners of the business. So that they are the only persons responsible for the losses and profits of the organization. We have to be accurate to call them as the investors and the owners of the business. Th ey can prepare the organizational strategy in such a way that it should improve the business day by day. They regard to take care of all the responsibilities given to the employees and have to take care of their basic take like food, shelter and other living things. By this the employees will be motivated and will work more fast. If the business running smoothly then there will be an increase in the profit of the organization.S. Davies, J. Lukommik and D. Pitt Watson addresses the view on the organizational strategy in their book, The New Capitalists. As per this view the business is the property of its stock owners and they have to serve their interest in the business. There are millions of pension holders and other savers that own the biggest organizations all over the world. These owners have to be senior spicyly diversified in their investments. They have to keep a record of all the investments they made and they also have to keep record of whatever they are getting profit. If the owner of the company takes the interest in the business, then the success will be all to them only. As per their view the managers have to concentrate on the success of the business. However, they collect to have a look and have to serve in such a way that there must be an increase in the profit.Conflicting needs, power and influence of StakeholdersThe Stakeholders represents more challenges than opportunities. Different group of stakeholders have their different interests. Some of them are common stakeholders interests and some of them are struggle stakeholders.The Employees and the stake holders have the common interest in success of the business. If there is a high profit in the business, then their jobs will be secured and more profit to the stakeholders. In the prosperity and growth of the firm, the suppliers have their own interest. There may be an expense in the dividend if wages are raised. There may be an expense of the short term profits if the managers have an in terest in organizational growth.Stakeholders power and influence The stakeholders represents more challenges than the opportunities. The study of the stake holders should not have to be a limit as it impacts on the growth of the organization. What is more important in the linguistic context of strategy is the power and influence of the stake holder and this may affect the objectives and goals of the organization. This may be a risk to the organizational growth. The firms are close probably affected by the stake holders itself if they take risk. There will be an external wedge and an internal pressure.External pressure includes the pressure from the customers, suppliers, government (through the taxation and spending), market place and including competitors. The internal pressure to the stake holders comes from their trade unions, employees, managers and the existing commitments. And it also comes from the moral and ethical perspective of the aged(a) managers.To have the power and the influence and for the need, the stake holders must have the desire to exert influence must have to be coupled with the centre of the liabilities on the company. The power of the stakeholders reflect the extent to which They can disrupt the strategies and plans of the organization. They can cause the uncertainty in plans. Stakeholders are the need of the organization and organization is relying on them.Primary and Secondary Stakeholders The distinction of the stake holders can be divided into 2 group of stakeholders. i.e.. Primary Stakeholders and Secondary Stakeholders.Primary Stakeholders are those that are intimately vital to the organization. And they are the group without whom the continuous corporation of the company may not survive on the running of the business. For example, supplier and customer. Secondary stakeholders are those the company can be still exist without them. And the company can participate as well.Organization managing handling Share holders issues o f ethics, corporate governance and regulationsThe internal stakeholders have their own perspective which they mogul pursue, for example, organizations profit is the need of the manager and high wages and favourable work conditions are the need of the employees. There will be an extensive power to the managers. The Internal stakeholders have the negative power that can be pile while the implementing of the strategy. The stakeholders can stake the industrial actions. They can give threaten to resign. And they may disapprove to relocate.The share holders are the whole and sole owners of the organization, they have the voting rights and they can buy or sell the shares to takeover.The government issues can be handled by share holders in the following ways. It is unacceptable if they are publicising the business activities. If there is a political switch then there will be a change in the law. They can refuse to buy sinceres or services from the fro named firms. They have to make su re that there should not be any illegal actions held.Mission accountThese are the two main components of the business. They provides managers the unity of the direction and transcends the well conceived vision of the business. The offshoot ideology to make the mission statement There are two components in the mission statement. They are nerve center Ideology and Envisioned Future. The Core Ideology defines that organization stands for what and why it is exist. This ideology is to create the demands of the business to change the process and to help the organization getting better. It defines the future of the organization and the goals and objectives of the organization depends on these vision and mission statements. If we prepare these statements in a good and strategic manner then we can get good results in the business.When the vision statement expressed and buy the farms tangible then it will become a mission statement. For a manager, to lead the organization such statement v erbalizes the beliefs. The definition of the mission is to define the enduring purpose and fundamental purpose of the firm that sets the statement apart from the firm in similar business.Mission statement of Tata steelThe mission statement of Tata Steel is to achieve the sustainable and advantageous growth in the steel and other related businesses. with the innovative offers they have to create the differential value for the customers. There should be a step by step improvement in the technologies and the business processes. They have to get into partnership with the key stake holders faster. To create a high performing and the innovative organization they have to enhance the employees competencies. They need to be a responsible corporate citizen and have to enhance the grapheme of life of the employees as well as community.The mission of the Tata Steel embodies the doctrine of the business of strategic decision makers and they would like to achieve the sustainable and the profi table growth that reflects the organizations self concept like as always being the innovative organization and the high performer. Competencies, technologies, company activities and the customer needs are the key components to design a good mission statement of an organization. In the same way, with the help of new technology and the new business processes they have created a well designed mission statement to serve the customer and for the high performance.Mission Statement of Metropolitan PoliceThe Mission statement of the Metropolitan police is to working together for a safer London. The main cypher of the metropolitan police is to develop the police services across Yankee Ireland, Wales and England to improve the response of police to those victims of the cyber crime. The mission statement also includes for the most serious cyber crime incidents to be nationally investigated and they should be capable of doing the investigation. working together by all the other partners, co lleagues and all the citizens. Delivering the quality service. Responding the complaints quickly. operative as a team as each one have different part to work for a safer London.Mission Statement of Villeroy BochThe mission statement of Villeroy Boch is to be leading lifestyle brand in atomic number 63 high competence and to present the trend style for the living and high end design. They believe that their success is by the enthusiasm of the customers and they can do it by showing their products and services to the customers. They always takes the constant challenges to satisfy the customers, a variety in the brand should be there to satisfy the customer needs. By having the innovative and committed employees a long run in the strong market can be achieved. The main task of them is to motivate the employees and cultivate their team spirit, to achieve their personal and joint goals they have to abet them.Following trends is enough to be a successful, constant and to be a leader i n the market. To secure the competitive edge and to be know worldwide they have to shape trends early on. Earning power is the important affect to maintain the long term success of the company. Appropriate dividends, constant and high rate of returns, earnings oriented growth and balanced portfolios are the fundamentals for this. They feel obligated not only to the employees, customers and share holders but also to the society and the environment.Development of Mission StatementThe purpose, strategy, values and behavioural standards are the key factors of mission statements. Below are some of the points that are suggested to improve the mission statement of the above three cases. In the case of Tata Steel the main point that is suggested is they have to make use of new technologies to improve the business and be the number one in the competitive market. In the case of Metropolitan Police, the key point suggested is, they require a system that is faster than the current system. Th ey have to act on the complaints quickly. They have to impart metropolitan police stations available in each body politic of London. In the case of Villeroy and Boch if they have to be on number one in the competitive market they have to produce variety in their products. Customers always look for variety with the cheaper price. So they have to make the products in cheaper prices.Involve Key Stakeholders and Staff.Research and fall over EOF Plans and Research college.Research and Review EOF missions and College.Determine how where EOF supports/fits college missionWe can use guides to develop the mission statements.The most powerful motivator in an organizationVivid description of the organization as it effectively carries out its operations.Compelling description of the state function of the organization once it had implemented the strategic planRepresent the hollow out priorities in the organizations culture, including what drives members priorities and how they truly act in the organizationEstablish substance values from which the program would like to operateArticulating values provides everyone with guides to choose among competing priorities guidelines about how people will work together.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Free Essays on Terrorism: The Language of Terrorism :: September 11 Terrorism Essays

The Language of act of terrorism On September 11, 2001, two airplanes flew into the World Trade Center and other into the Pentagon, while yet another suspiciously crashed. Blasted on T.V. screens across America, were images of fire, destruction, chaos and death. Framed in colors of red, white and blue, were such headlines that skim America Under-Attack, The War Against Terror and The Attack on America tout ensemble the while, urgent ticket taped messages flowed across our television screens and news anchors describe on the utmost of news. To sum-up the days events, death chair Bush addressed the nation. It was in the electric chairs initial dialect to the nation following the fire on the World Trade Center that the adjective evil was starting introduced. Quoting from the bible, and making reference to a power greater than any of us, the President reassured the American people of their safety and well-being. Within a match of minutes, the stage was set for all that wa s to follow. Since adopted by the media, the Bush brass section and the American people, the religious reference of evil by the President has start out an integral part of the public discourse. Framing the way we talk and recollect about the days events, and all subsequent events, including talk of put in Laden, the Taliban and terrorism, the use of binary language in religious and metaphoric smell have become an important element in the war against terrorism. And despite the Presidents and congress denouncement of any reference to the lash out on terrorism as a holy war, it seems as if the American ideal of separation of state and religion, has become suspended and/or forgotten all together. The intent of this paper is to analysis the language used by the President to describe the September 11th events, and consequentially, its binary effects. Given the Presidents religious and metaphoric references a dichotomous framework is persuasion to exit. For instance, in using the term evil, images of the devil and hell have been conjured up --and conversely-- images of God and heaven. Helping to demonize those responsible, the initial language used by the President and later incorporated by the press, has since served as a semipolitical weapon from which to fight the war against terrorism. In that the Presidents speech evoked from his audience (most notably the American people) feelings of fear, terror, anger, and hatred, the appeal has been to the publics emotions and senses rather than their ration and intellect.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Comparing Imagery in Flying a Red Kite and The Lamp at Noon :: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays

Imagery in Flying a departure Kite and The Lamp at Noon Imagery is apply by more authors as a crucial element of character development. These authors draw parallels amid the vision in their stories and the main characters thoughts and feelings. Through intense imagery, non-human elements such as the natural environment, animals, and inanimate objects are brought to life with characteristics that match those of the characters involved. Sinclair Ross uses vivid imagery of nature to reflect and influence the emotions of his characters in his short story The Lamp at Noon. The wind is a powerful force that changes with the emotions of Ellen and Paul. Sinclair describes the wind as 2 separate winds the wind in flight of steps, and the wind that pursues (Atwood/Weaver, 74). Like the wind in flight which cannot escape the wind that pursues it, Ellen cannot escape her isolation. The wind in flight always returns to quake among the feeble eaves, as if in all this dust-mad wild it knew n o other sanctuary (74). Ellen is also forced to seek safety device within her small home, which is also the place where she feels the most secluded. The wind outback(a) often contrasts the silence that is encased inside. During an argument between Paul and Ellen, in that location is an uncomfortable silence, a deep fastness of it enclosed by hie wind and creaking walls(76). This noise around them makes the silence within heretofore more uncomfortable. Paul later finds the silence comforting when he is in the stable. It is described as a deep hollow calm within, a vast darkness engulfed beneath the tides of moaning wind (78). The silence protects him and brings him relief from the perilous world outside. Unfortunately, the walls seem to weaken against the powerful wind, and instead of release or escape from the assaulting wind, the walls are but a feeble stand against it (78). Paul begins to understand what Ellen is feeling, and the wind screams like Ellens cries. As he thinks of ways to restore the cut back and make Ellen happy, the wind starts to slacken. For a short moment, he feels relief. When he returns to the house, he realizes that Ellen is gone. At this point, the wind whimpers and moans as if it knows Ellens isolation and Pauls despair. The imagery of the wind is used by Sinclair to intensify the characters emotions and help the reader understand what the characters are experiencing.

parent teacher relationships Essay -- essays research papers

How often would you say you go on questions about what your pincers/youngest nestlings teacher is doing to ply an grooming for your babe?Have you done anything to get to hunch your childs teacher or teachers?Have you done anything to get to know your childs teacher or teachers?Have you done anything to dish your childs teacher or teachers get to know your child and his or her strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes?How well do you think you understand what is expected of you as a parent or guardian by your childs teacher or teachers?Thinking about your involvement with your childs school, would you say you aroma like an insider or an outsider?Do you feel like you are a full partner in the butt on of educating your child, or would you say that your involvement in your childs education is less than that?Students are usually given grades of A, B, C, D or F to describe the quality of their work .... How would you grade the school your child/youngest child attends?Are you a p arent, guardian, or grandparent who is responsible for providing fairly regular parenting deal out for one or more children who are school age or younger?What grade or grades are your children in?How often do you attend parent-teacher conferences all the time, most of the time, sometimes, seldom or never? principally speaking, how productive would you say parent-teacher conferences are for you - very productive, mostly productive, only a little productive, or not productive at al...

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Indecision, Hesitation and Delay in Shakespeares Hamlet Essay

Hesitation in Hamlet William Shakespeares Hamlet is tragic because all of the enmity being the fruit of virtuoso mans inability to make decisions. I believe the play is display the steps of hesitation a person goes through who cannot choose, and the resultant angst. This one man is Prince Hamlet. Throughout the play he comes into situations where he just cant hold up himself into action. In Act I, Scene 5 Hamlet has an encounter with a spectre who explains that it is Hamlets deceased father. After a little while of talk of the tget the ghost tells Hamlet that he did not die of natural causes, save was in fact murdered. When the ghost says this Hamlet replies with Haste me to knowt, that I, with wings as swift As meditation or the thoughts of love May traverse to my revenge. (Lines 29-31) Hamlet is swearing to avenge his fathers death as fast as possible. The ghost then tells Hamlet that the villain who committed the murder was the Kings own brother Claudius. Thi s surprises Hamlet, but he knows he made a swearing and he must stick to it, he then says So, uncle, there you are. without delay to my word It is, Adieu, adieu, remember me. I have swornt. (I.V. Lines 110-111) After the scene with the ghost the reader would most likely believe that an enraged Hamlet bygone straight to Claudius room to kill him. This is the first incident when Hamlet is spy being incapable of making decisions. In Act II, Scene 2, dickens scenes after Hamlet was about to kill the king, he still hasnt through it, but during this scene Hamlet comes in contact with a assort of traveling actors and asks them to play for the king. Hamlet tells us in this next inverted comma of his tragic flaw of indecision and of his plan ... out the play bowelless at his soul. So in the end it was Hamlets inability to act that kills him and galore(postnominal) others. Works Cited and Consulted Bloom, Harold. Modern Critical Interpretations Of Hamlet. raw(a) York , NY Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Boklund, Gunnar. Hamlet. Essays on Shakespeare. Ed. Gerald Chapman. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 1965. Epstein, Norrie. One of Destinys Casualties. Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. of The Friendly Shakespeare A Thoroughly painless to the Best of the Bard. New York Viking Penguin, 1993. p. 332-34. Jorgensen, Paul A. Hamlet. William Shakespeare the Tragedies. Boston Twayne Publ., 1985. N. pag. http// Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. T. J. B. Spencer. New York Penguin, 1996.

Erosion of Gender Equality in America :: Feminism Feminist

Erosion of Gender par in AmericaAmerican people come in a variety of shapes and sizes their thoughts, fears, and convictions differ widely. It is usually necessary for Americans to choose a status in politics and community but it is obvious that among particular(prenominal) groups and organizations, a persons beliefs and opinions differ dramatically from the next. womens liberationist groups, specifically in the last twenty course of studys, have announced their view of membership as an elite group of fair sex who must have the same specific convictions. Moreover, they denounce anyone who does not, as irrational and supporting the continuance of subordination of women. Feminist propaganda is off track when it comes to the real experiences of American women and men. It is true, that in the past, a womans voice was often disregarded she was denied certain rights, for some women fought. Elizabeth Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Blackwell were far-famed for their courage a nd persistence in bringing change. It is safe to say that approximately Americans now agree men and women have vast talents and capabilities. A hundred ago women were concerned with issues, such as the right to own office and vote. Somewhere between then and now, feminist groups turned their agenda to issues that offended many Americans. They crossed the line of personal and moral decisions and made imbecile accusations toward men. The first feminists were necessary. Modern feminists have lost touch with American women and unconsciously undermined genuine equality. It is no wonder why men and women submit to distance themselves from feminism. Long before Europeans came to the new land with their Judeo-Christian ideology, patriarchy was the exception not the norm. Women, their bodies, and ability to give birth and nurse children were adorned. Women did 80 percent of the hunting until the reintroduction of the horse. Women were shoved out of the hunting scenario. The horse allo wed men to capture radius, and the mans expendable sex was no obstacle when travel long distances. The economic survival was now the mans domain. The observe of the women fell when mother earth lost her place. In addition, the European settlers coerce their Christian ideals on the Native Americans and other subordinate groups later. During the next several(prenominal) years, the colonial family stayed the same historically, there was no womens movement until 1848, the year of the Seneca Falls Convention. Organized by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the Declaration of Principles was produced.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Jane Eyre Essays -- essays research papers

Blanche Ingram scoundrel?Blanche Ingram is the most important woman, other than Jane Eyre, in the novel. Arguably, she is the most important enemy in this book. It is difficult to fathom how an absolutely horrid, conceited, venal, apathetic creature could be so vital to the book but take her away, the motivation, conflict, and character itself crumbles. deal out this synopsais Jane Eyre has not yet come to terms with her revel with Mr. Rochester. Mr. Rochester is so ridiculous with Jane that he stinker not contain himself and is ready to proclaim his distinguish at any moment. Mr. Rochester must somehow occupy himself until he is received of Janes fervent love for him and what better way to test this than with green-eyed monster? This feminine competitive jealousy can only be achieved by bringing in the stereotypical, perfect woman of the epoch. This woman is Blanche Ingram. Blanche produces enough clamor to spark Jane to get over her reticence and speak out to Rochester o f the love she feels for him. A second scenario Jane loves Mr. Rochester in her heart. She only needs something, some happenstance, where she can break through her reserve and coyness to express her feelings. Mr. Rochester brings to Thornfield a political party of guests all elegantly appareled and socially sophisticated. Hesitantly, Jane reaches the drawing room where she and Ad...

Pool Personalities :: essays research papers

After a hard solar days work, nothing satisfies me like going out to run for a few friendly games of puss. Pool itself is supposed to be a gentlemans game, but many of the plenty I childs play against taint the image of the game. The average person I play is unspoilt out looking for a good date. It could be slightlyone attempt to free his or her mind after a stressful day at work, or a group of friends hanging out for a while. These are the people who normally come in, adjudge a brace drinks, and enjoy a few games of pool before going house for the evening. Although few do clown around a little, they rarely trounce out of hand. If you look towards the back of a bar or pool hall, this is where you will often find the better skilled pool players. These people tend to take the game very seriously. Good pool players are generally round of the most nice and courteous people I feature ever met. Most of these players play the game in the period gentleman-like fashion and cherish their moments at the put off, but at that place are some who try to take advantage of others. These hustlers or sharks as they are usually cheatn will act as if they do not know much about the game, but in all actuality are some of the better players around town. I have learned to keep an sum out for certain things, but other people should be aware(p) of who they are playing when money is involved.One of the most annoying opponents on a pool table is someone who always whines and complains. Every time someone like this misses a shot they have to make some excuse to take the blame off of their own self. I have heard nearly every excuse there is to hear from the table not be level and someones stick being warped to pocket gnomes and earthquakes. One or two remarks here and there is okay, but making an excuse after every shot gets erstwhile(a) very quick.The next category is one you should expect to find kind of often drunks. Just like everywhere else, drunks are by f arthest the loudest and most obnoxious people in the pool hall. I have played many games against them. The thing that really bothers me is when it is their turn to shoot they are always talking to someone else and will keep talking until you incite them that they are in the middle of a game.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Future of Management Essay -- essays research papers

With our eco no.y continuing to sputter, an increasing number of companies twain public and private ar looking to defend themselves by hiring focusing executives that have seen hard times before. This new trend may be on to something. Recently, Sam Brothwell, an analyst with Merrill Lynch, spoke to a group of companies and utter that one of the things that he found with most companies is that there is a curt bit more gray hair, which he found comforting in todays business place. Due to the unstable market companies are now looking at the more taked manager when it comes to recruiting top-level perplexity officials.It has not always been this way, however. Commercials portray Chief Executive Officers as twenty-something flower people with rose-colored glasses, instead of the sixty-somethings in charcoal suits and gray hair. Take for object lesson Silicon Valley and its management staffs, quite a few companies were starchy with young people who swore to the caller-up that t hey had a finger on the rhythm of technology. These young people also were quite positive that they could make their company millions. Did it happen? In some cases yes, but in most no. A lot of companies fail because they do not have long-run business plans, and that comes with experience. Experienced management is also seen as a allure for venture capitalist looking to invest in a company. The experience that people bri...

Fuel Cell Technology :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

Fuel Cell TechnologyFuel Cells argon a hot topic these days between the soon to come sack cellular telephone cars thatToyota and Honda plan on unveiling this year and the $1.2 billion death chair Bushannounced he would dedicate to fuel cell look for during his State of the Union address.The least efficient of these electrochemical energy converters are at least as efficient asinternal burning at the stake engines and many are doubly as efficient when using peculiar(prenominal)techniques. Exhaust from fuel cells is extremely clean, often consisting only of water.Although some lend oneself hydrocarbons, fuel cells give off around one one-hundredth of thepollutants give off by an internal combustion engine using the identical amount of fuel(Fuel Cell Technology Handbook). Unfortunately some engineer and infrastructureproblems, especially costs, are keeping fuel cells from commercial viability make up now.A Brief History of Fuel Cell TechnologyThe ideas merchant ship fuel cel ls have existed for around one hundred and sixty years.Sir William grove is cited as the branch person to think that one could produce a current byreversing the electrolysis of water ( However, it was until fifty years later thatthe frontier fuel cell was coined by two researchers, Charles Langer and Ludwig Mond,trying to invent the first viable fuel cell fueled by coal fellate ( The technologylay dormant for most of the early twentieth vitamin C because of great advances in the useof internal combustion engines. It wasnt until 1959 that practical(a) fuel cells were firstdemonstrated. NASA quickly took interest in the technology for the Apollo missions andsince in that respect has been a renaissance in research and development of fuel cells. Currently, on that point are on the order of hundreds of fuel cell generators in mental process world wide, citiessuch as L.A., Chicago, and New York, own fuel cell powered public transit vehicles, andboth Honda and Toy ota plan on qualification fuel cell powered car commercially available within one year ( a Fuel Cell WorksA fuel cell is an energy converter that uses electrochemical energy to pee anelectric current. Because they use electrochemistry for power, fuel cells are often likenedto batteries that run on fuel. This description is not a bad one, but to be more(prenominal) precise, afuel cell creates direct current by ionizing a fuel and then moving those ions through acircuit. The three principal(prenominal) components are the anode (negatively charged piece), cathode(positively charge piece), and electrolyte (medium for the transfer of ions). Fuel,typically hydrogen, is ionized at the anode by a catalyst (substance that can change aninteraction, but does not change the chemistry of it).

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Essay --

Daniel Nitinthorn Professor John GanimEnglish 020ADecember 13, 2013Progress of Lit timeture verbiage and experimental defecate define the Modern period as ideas that were to begin with forbidden began to surface and writers especially began to prove parvenu notions of humanity through and through these developments. In William Butler Yeats The Second attack, the reader gets glimpses of the combinations of religions and how they represent a cultural speech that is on a different spectrum than writing in the blue(a) era. Ulysses by James Joyce begins to experiment with form and surfaces ideas so novel that they ar too vulgar to show to the general public. There is a transfigure in the culture during this era that is shown through the the experimentation of writing and the topics creation written about.The Second Coming, with its christian title refers to the British culture and how it testament relate to the rest of the world. It is a poem that talks about the endorse comi ng of the savior who will only come after the puppet of the apocalypse, or the antichrist. There is a notable change in the language as Yeats refers to this antichrist as looking like an Egyptian sphinx but relates both(prenominal) Egyptian culture and a Christian, British culture. While the Victorian era was heavily influenced by the idea of otherness, the Modern period began to see connections surrounded by all of the worlds cultures and how it relates to their own. One of these mixing of cultures comes when Yeats says, The Second Coming A shape with a lion body and the head of a man (2482). He shows The Second Coming, which is a Christian idea and therefore brings in the Egyptian sphinx. The mixing of these images presents a language that would not start out been heard sooner as this now relates two..., as it relates to The Second Coming, is a play on form of literature to help express current ideas that needed to be presented in this new era of cultureThe experime ntation of language and form are focal points in the Modern period. As this new era was forming, there was a call for a new form of literature especially to fill the new literate classes that blush due to an increase in those who had access to education. This new form helped express new ideas of the era that would not have the same effect with earlier language. Ulysses is the major change in form that helped show human understanding by spilling out the thoughts of the characters. New ideas about culture and humanity pink wine from The Second Coming due to the improvements in the English language. The experimentation of form and language allow literature to present emerging ideas in a newly formed era.

The Role of Scholars in the Era of Digital Texts Essay -- Education Me

In her introduction to Electronic Text Investigations in rule and Theory, Kathryn Sutherland asks if there is a real danger that the scholar-worker, toiling for years in the remote regions of the library stacks in the hope of becoming skilled in one small field, will be transformed by the computer into the technician, the nerdy navigator able to locate, transfer, and appropriate at an ever immediate rate expert entries from a larger set of information that he/she no longer needs or desires to take in (Sutherland 10). Her inquiry is ground on an issue that still plagues many scholars with quick opening to so much digitized information, how do we evaluate what we still need and desire to understand? Of course, her question implies that evaluating printed information is an evaluation based on less access and therefore a smaller set of information, and evaluating printed information is not an simple-minded issue it is one which scholars reconsider constantly. One such groupliterar y scholar-workersmay spend years toiling over similar versions of a printed text in order to produce a singe interpretive program edition. In the case of Christopher Marlowes The Tragedie of Doctor Faustus, for example, there is no extant manuscript, baseball club versions were printed between 1604 and 1631, and the first appe bed almost nine years after Marlowes death. Those that appeared in 1604, 1609, and 1611 are similar and are collectively known as the A-text. The 1616, 1619, 1620, 1624, 1628, and 1631 versions are also similar and known as the B-text. Which one should a contributor or scholar consult?Remarkably different, the A- and B- texts have inspired an across-the-board amount of critical commentary and scholarly editors since W.W. Greg appear to agree on one ... ... 2. Binda, Hillary. An Overview of this Electronic Doctor Faustus. Accessed October 2004.. 3. Greg, W.W., ed. Marlowes Doctor Faustus 1604-1616 Parallel Texts. Oxford Clarendon Press, 1950. 4. Lava gnino, John. Completeness and adequacy in text encoding. The Literary Text in the Digital Age. Finneran, Richard J. (Ed.), Ann Arbor The University of clams Press, 1996. 5. Schreibman, Susan. Computer-mediated Texts and Textuality Theory and Practice. In Siemens (Ed.). A New Computer-Assisted Literary unfavorable judgment? Special edition of Computers and the Humanities, 36283-293, (2002). 6. --The Versioning Machine. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 181 (2003). 7. Sutherland, Kathryn (Ed.). Introduction. Electronic Text Investigations in Method and Theory. Clarendon Press Oxford, 1997.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Rabies Symptoms :: Medical Disease

Rabies SymptomsRabies is an exceedingly old ailment. Some speculate that it is as old as humankind itself. Rabies belongs to a family of viruses called lyssa. Lyssa is the Greek word for lyssa, which is derived from the root lud, which promoter violent. The first case of rabies was described in the 23rd degree centigrade BC in the Eshuma Code of Babylon. Generally, the virus is communicable to humans by other animals or humans who are already infected. Rabies is an super deadly disease, and if left untr runed, it has a mortality rate greater than 99 percent. In fact, there has only been one documented case of a human that has survived this deadly disease. The course that the disease takes is ofttimes violent. (fas)Picture a chase after coming down the street, madly dashing this way and that with no apparent goal other than biting anything and everything. Everything about this dog has changed. He no chronic remembers his friends, and he no longer wishes o eat or drink, in fac t he is hydrophobic. This lack of nutrients brings an end to the dogs yelps of pain after a few hours or days. The cries fabricate weak and harsh, fatigue sets in, and the animal seizes and eventually dies. This series of events is commonly cognise as mad dog. (Webster 3)The term mad dog may be more familiar to most people than the term rabies is, but they mean the same thing. The disease is usually, but not always, transmitted to humans by a bite. As the disease progresses, the sanity of the touch animal or human gradually deteriorates. By the time an idiosyncratic(a) displays the symptoms described, it has already lost its battle with the rabies virus. Rabies is a disease that must be caught as early as possible the longer it takes to diagnose, the less chance of survival there is. The earliest sign of transmission is a change in disposition. The victim may develop a troubled or1distracted look, which is followed by lack of appetency to recognize or be friendly with others . However, in other cases an individual may become more gentle and friendly. (Webster 4-5)There are devil general forms of rabies furious rabies and ho-hum rabies. Frequencies of furious and dumb rabies are approximately equal in both the research lab and in the field. Furious rabies is the more stereotypic form of rabies. Individuals often wander about, followed by signs of excessive excitability or irritability.

Essay --

A volcano erupts, and lava spews everywhere, burning every livelihood thing it touches. By the time the eruption is over, not a mavin blade of grass is still living in the area. Volcanoes and their magma have of in each time been viewed as chaotic, uncontrollable objects. But what if humans could use them for their own vantage?Geothermal verve is vigour from Earths heat. Geothermal energy has some advantages over other types of energy. One is that it is available over 90% of the time compared to blacken plants only getting 75%. That means that darn many power plants, like solar plants and wind turbines, and even coal plants cant be producing energy anywhere near all of the time, geothermal energy plants can be working nearly all of the time. Recently, scientists drilling into the Krafla volcano in Ireland, led by Gumunder Omar Friedleifsson accidentally observed that magma can be a useful way to get geothermal energy. This happened when the scientists found magma 7,000 fee t into the earth. They soon realized that the water heating the drill they were using, and the highly hot magma made a superheated steam tha could be chemically altered to power a turbine. After the stripping, scientists estimated that geothermal energy from magma could produce 25 MW of power, which is 5 times more than current geothermal energy well makeInterestingly enough, this more powerful energy would also be cheaper, because conventional geothermal energy needs expensive perforated piping down the undefiled hole, while geothermal energy from magma would only need it for about coke meters. Also, unlike fogy fuels, another cheap energy source, geothermal energy is renewable, and it does not harm the environment a lot. This one accidental discovery the scient... ...many of the island countrys economies, because they wouldnt have to import a lot of fossil fuels for their energy. This would athletic supporter the whole world in general, and could keep them from going any far into debt. Geothermal energy from magma will be extremely useful, especially to countries with a lot of volcanoes that are in debt.Scientists have discovered that magma can be used to make geothermal energy. This would be very useful, as it is untold more efficient than conventional geothermal energy, and it is better for the environment than fossil fuels, and it is renewable. There are, however, some bad parts about the energy. The plants could cause insignificant earthquakes, and could be destroyed by the volcano erupting. However, the advantages of geothermal energy from magma surmount the risks, and it probably will become a very important energy type in the near future.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Dragonsbane :: essays research papers

The setting for Dragonsbane was in about the 1400s in a outer space called Wyr. jenny throne and Gareth are the main characters. Jenny is a aesthesis women who is always trying to advance her skills but still isnt very good. John is Jennys husband and is also a dragons bane, which means that he has slayed a dragon. Gareth is a prince whos hero is John. And final Zyerne, she is also a wizard women whom is the most regent(postnominal) in the land. Gareth comes up from the South to ask of Johns assistance in kill a dragon that is threatening the Kings lands. John decides to go with him and talk to the king. When they pound there they find out that Zyerne is holding the king under just about sort of spell and using him for her bidding. John talks to the king and gets attain to slay the dragon. He asks Jenny to make the most powerful poisons she earth-closet and then dips his harpoons in it. John then rides off to slay the dragon. When the involvement his over Jenny goes out t o were the battle happened and finds the dragon and John fable in bloody pools and realizes that john is still living. She takes him back to camp and puts mend spells on him. She then goes back to the dragon and sees that he is still alive to. The dragon told her that if she healed him that he would tell her where the books of healing were in the caves called the mystical so she could heal John. She agrees and the dragon through telepathy shows her the way in the maze of tunnels. It is always said to save a dragon is to buckle down a dragon for life. So Jenny saved the dragon and John. Zyerne was time lag for them to kill the dragon so she could take over the deep because of the immense amounts of gold in them. So Zyerne came and tried to kill the dragon and Jenny but failed and she was killed. The dragon through all of this fell in do with Jenny and asked her to turn into a dragon and return with him to were the dragons lived.

Empathy in Brechts The Good Person of Szechwan and Mother Courage and

Little Empathy in Brechts The goodish Person of Szechwan and Mother Courage and Her ChildrenBrecht is very successful in creating a form of drama where empathy plays small(a) part. In The Good Person of Szechwan it would face that every action and word is an attempt to alienate us and layover any identification wholeness may chance to make. The indiscernible drug abuse of names for characters exaggerating the oriental sound of them is immediately noticeable i.e. Wang, Shin Sun, Shen Te, Shu Ta, etc. in that respect is also the use of language and intonation in relation to others disclosure personality and social position, which comes in the form of oriental bows. Many of these gestures argon already to be found in Asian theatre. Brecht calls it the social gestus. Songs also kick downstairs the plot, but it is not the frame of bursting into song which one finds in musicals. The music itself sounds sometimes out of tune and there is an offbeat that one would find problematic to tap ones foot to so one cannot become involved or relate to the music, although songs from The Threepenny Opera became very popular. The moon macrocosm likened to green cheese as a slur on societys belief in a child of get-go birth will inherit the earth and The Song of the Eighth Elephant when there be really only seven anticipates the underhand actions of Sun who represents a topic of people in society who destroy others welfare for their own individual interest. All these songs are successful in alienating the audience and view a similar message the impossibility of a society being saved by an individual. Brecht strives to create a drama in which empathy plays little part by drawing ones attention away from any kind of identification one might make, particularly with... ... our own society and one wishes to challenge it. One is actually allowed to come to ones own conclusions freely and critically particularly through the eyes of the overwhelmed Shen Te who has to inve nt a unkind cousin for herself who can save the business by applying the cruel laws of the market. except I find myself slightly swayed by sub-themes which do hint a little at identification and emotion. Works Cited Brecht, Bertolt. Mother Courage and Her Children. Worthen 727-751. Brecht, Bertolt. poised Plays. London Methuen, 1970.Benjamin, Walter. Conversations with Brecht. Understanding Brecht. Trans. Anna Bostock. London New Left Books, 1973. 105-121.Brecht, Bertolt. Brecht on Theatre. Ed. and trans. buns Willett. New York Hill and Wang, 1992. Worthen, W.B. ed. The Harcourt Brace Anthology of Drama. 3rd ed. Toronto Harcourt, 1993.